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Richmond E.,National Childrens Hospital | Rogol A.D.,Indiana University | Rogol A.D.,University of Virginia
Endocrine Development | Year: 2010

Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been appropriate for severely GH-deficient children and adolescents since the 1960s. Use for other conditions for which short stature was a component could not be seriously considered because of the small supply of human pituitary-derived hormone. That state changed remarkably in the mid-1980s because of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with human pituitary tissue-derived hGH and the development of a (nearly) unlimited supply of recombinant, 22 kDa (r)hGH. The latter permitted all GH-deficient children to have access to treatment and one could design trials using rhGH to increase adult height in infants, children and adolescents with causes of short stature other than GH deficiency, as well as trials in adult GH-deficient men and women. Approved indications (US Food and Drug Administration) include: GH deficiency, chronic kidney disease, Turner syndrome, small-for-gestational age with failure to catch up to the normal height percentiles, Prader-Willi syndrome, idiopathic short stature, SHOX gene haploinsufficiency and Noonan syndrome (current to October 2008). The most common efficacy outcome in children is an increase in height velocity, although rhGH may prevent hypoglycemia in some infants with congenital hypopituitarism and increase the lean/fat ratio in most children - especially those with severe GH deficiency or Prader-Willi syndrome. Doses for adults, which affect body composition and health-related quality of life, are much lower than those for children, per kilogram of lean body mass. The safety profile is quite favorable with a small, but significant, incidence of raised intracranial pressure, scoliosis, muscle and joint discomfort, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The approval of rhGH therapy for short, non-GH-deficient children has validated the notion of GH sensitivity, which gives the opportunity to some children with significant short stature, but with normal stimulated GH test results, to benefit from rhGH therapy and perhaps attain an adult height within the normal range and appropriate for their mid-parental target height (genetic potential). Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Greally P.,National Childrens Hospital | Whitaker P.,University of Leeds | Peckham D.,University of Leeds
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2012

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant pathogen infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial colonization is usually transient and associated with non-mucoid strains, which can be eradicated if identified early. This strategy can prevent, or at least delay, chronic Pa infection, which eventually develops in the majority of patients by their late teens or early adulthood. This article discusses the management and latest treatment developments of Pa lung infection in patients with CF, with a focus on nebulized antibiotic therapy. Methods: PubMed was searched to identify English language articles published up until August 2011 using combinations of the following key words: 'antibiotics', 'chronic', 'cystic fibrosis', 'eradication', 'exacerbations', 'guidelines', 'inhaled', 'intravenous', 'lung infection', 'burden', 'adherence', 'patient segregation', 'pseudomonas aeruginosa' and 'resistance'. Findings: Antibiotics form a central part of the treatment regimens for chronic Pa lung infection. Current treatment guidelines recommend that patients with chronic pulmonary infection with Pa should receive long-term inhaled anti-pseudomonal therapy to preserve lung function, and to reduce the frequency of pulmonary exacerbations and hospital admissions. While antibiotic resistance seems to increase with frequent antibiotic use, this does not appear to impact on clinical outcome. Negative aspects of therapy include the time needed for drug administration and subsequent cleaning of the equipment. These factors cause a significant treatment burden and impact on adherence. The availability of more convenient formulations and delivery vehicles for anti-pseudomonal antibiotics may help overcome some of these challenges. Conclusions: Current challenges in the management of CF patients with chronic Pa lung infection are numerous. The availability of novel anti-pseudomonal antibiotic formulations/devices is anticipated to improve treatment adherence in patients with CF, and could improve clinical outcomes. Thus, there is hope for improved survival in individuals with CF suffering from chronic pulmonary infection with Pa. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abman S.H.,Aurora University | Kinsella J.P.,Aurora University | Rosenzweig E.B.,Columbia University | Krishnan U.,Columbia University | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) contributes to disability and death in children with diverse cardiac, pulmonary, or systemic diseases, and therapeutic options are currently limited. Data from adult studies provide the basis for most PAH-specific therapies; however, many of these medications are commonly used in children on an off-label basis due to the life-threatening nature of PAH. Although currently approved for use in adult PAH, sildenafil is used extensively off-label for the treatment of neonates, infants, and children with PAH. Past studies have generally suggested favorable effects and outcomes in infants and young children with PAH, but these reports are generally uncontrolled observations, except for one single-center trial for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Despite extensive clinical experience with sildenafil therapy in children and approval by the European Medicines Agency for its pediatric use in Europe, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently issued a warning against the use of sildenafil for pediatric PAH between 1 and 17 years of age due to an apparent increase in mortality during long-term therapy. Although these data are extremely limited, this U.S. Food and Drug Administration review challenges the pediatric PAH community to further assess the efficacy and safety of sildenafil, especially with chronic treatment. Although low doses of sildenafil are likely safe in pediatric PAH, further studies should carefully examine its role in the long-term therapy of children, especially with diverse causes of PAH. Pediatric patients with PAH require close surveillance and frequent monitoring, and persistent sildenafil monotherapy is likely insufficient with disease progression. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.

Puri P.,National Childrens Research Center | Kutasy B.,National Childrens Research Center | Colhoun E.,National Childrens Hospital | Hunziker M.,National Childrens Research Center
Journal of Urology | Year: 2012

Purpose: In recent years the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and the surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. We determined the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid as first line treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Materials and Methods: Between 2001 and 2010, 1,551 children (496 male, 1,055 female, median age 1.6 years) underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid soon after the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 761 children and bilateral in 790. Renal scarring was detected in 369 (26.7%) of the 1,384 patients who underwent dimercapto-succinic acid imaging. Reflux grade in the 2,341 ureters was II in 98 (4.2%), III in 1,340 (57.3%), IV in 818 (34.9%) and V in 85 (3.6%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure, and renal ultrasound was performed annually thereafter. Patients were followed for 3 months to 10 years (median 5.6 years). Results: Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first, second and third endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 2,039 (87.1%), 264 (11.3%) and 38 (1.6%) ureters, respectively. Febrile urinary tract infections developed during followup in 69 (4.6%) patients. None of the patients in the series needed reimplantation of ureters or experienced any significant complications. Conclusions: Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the eradication of high grade vesicoureteral reflux. We recommend this 15-minute outpatient procedure as the first line of treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

McNally P.,National Childrens Hospital
Pediatric pulmonology | Year: 2010

We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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