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Stef L.,Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Timisoara | Cean A.,Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Timisoara | Vasile A.,University of Galati | Julean C.,Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Timisoara | And 3 more authors.
Gut Pathogens

Campylobacter enteritis has emerged as one of the most common forms of human diarrheal illness. In this study we have investigated the virulence potential of five new C. jejuni chicken isolates (RO14, RO19, RO24, RO29 and RO37) originated from private households in the rural regions of Banat and Transylvania in Romania. Following isolation and in vitro virulence assay, on HCT-8 cells, our results show that all the C. jejuni chicken isolates overcome the virulence abilities of the highly virulent strain C. jejuni 81-176. Motility, an important virulence factor was significantly improved in all the new chicken isolates. The ability to survive to the antimicrobial activity of the human serum, to resist to the violent attack of bile acids and to survive in the presence of synthetic antibiotics was increased in all the chicken isolates. However, these were statistically significant only for isolates RO29 and RO37. In conclusion our study shows, based on invasiveness and motility, and also on the data provided by the serum and bile resistance experiments that all the new chicken isolates are able to infect human cells, in vitro, and could potentially represent a health hazard for humans. © 2013 Stef et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Eliwan H.O.,Paediatrics | Eliwan H.O.,University College Dublin | Eliwan H.O.,National Children Research Center | Eliwan H.O.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | And 18 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology

Infection and inflammation can be antecedents of neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and increase the risk of neurological sequelae. Activated protein C (APC) has anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects and provides neuroprotection in brain and spinal cord injury. We examined neutrophil and monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in infants with NE compared with healthy adult and neonatal controls, and also studied the effect of APC. Whole blood was incubated with LPS and APC and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (LPS recognition), CD11b expression (activation) and intracellular reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI; function) release from neutrophils and monocytes was examined by flow cytometry serially from days 1 to 7. We found a significant increase in neutrophil ROI in infants with NE on day 3 following LPS compared to neonatal controls and this augmented response was reduced significantly by APC. Neutrophil and monocyte CD11b expression was increased significantly on day 1 in infants with NE compared to neonatal controls. LPS-induced neutrophil TLR-4 expression was increased significantly in infants with NE on days 3 and 7 and was reduced by APC. LPS-induced monocyte TLR-4 was increased significantly in infants with NE on day 7. Neutrophil and monocyte activation and production of ROIs may mediate tissue damage in infants with NE. APC modified LPS responses in infants with NE. APC may reduce the inflammatory responses in NE and may ameliorate multi-organ dysfunction. Further study of the immunomodulatory effects of protein C may be warranted using mutant forms with decreased bleeding potential. © 2014 British Society for Immunology. Source

Higgins G.,National Children Research Center | Buchanan P.,National Children Research Center | Perriere M.,National Children Research Center | Al-Alawi M.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

In cystic fibrosis (CF), the airway surface liquid (ASL) height is reduced as a result of impaired ion transport, which favors bacterial colonization and inflammation of the airway and leads to progressive lung destruction. Lipoxin (LX)A4, which promotes resolution of inflammation, is inadequately produced in the airways of patients with CF. We previously demonstrated that LXA4 stimulates an ASL height increase and epithelial repair. Here we report the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes.Wefound thatLXA4 (1 nM) induced an apical ATP release from non-CF (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) airway epithelial cell lines and CF primary cultures. The ATP release induced by LXA4 was completely inhibited by antagonists of the ALX/FPR2 receptor and Pannexin-1 channels. LXA4 induced an increase in intracellular cAMP and calcium, which were abolished by the selective inhibition of the P2RY11 purinoreceptor. Pannexin-1 and ATP hydrolysis inhibition and P2RY11 purinoreceptor knockdown all abolished the increase of ASL height induced by LXA4. Inhibition of the A2b adenosine receptor did not affect the ASL height increase induced by LXA4, whereas the PKA inhibitor partially inhibited this response. The stimulation of NuLi-1 and CuFi-1 cell proliferation, migration, and wound repair by LXA4 was inhibited by the antagonists of Pannexin-1 channel and P2RY11 purinoreceptor. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a novel role of LXA4 in stimulating apical ATP secretion via Pannexin-1 channels and P2RY11 purinoreceptors activation leading to an ASL height increase and epithelial repair. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

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