Tainan, Taiwan

National Cheng Kung University is a research-led comprehensive university in Tainan City, Taiwan. In Chinese, its name is shortened to 成大 . Cheng Kung is named after Cheng Ch'eng-Kung , who defeated the Dutch and founded the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. NCKU is one of the most prestigious universities in Taiwan, with a high reputation in science, engineering, medicine, management, planning and design. According to US News and World Report - 2014 Global Universities Ranking , NCKU was ranked #22 Best Global University for Engineering and Computer Science. Times Higher Education- QS World University Rankings and Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities, NCKU was ranked second or third among all universities in Taiwan. Many surveys throughout the years have shown that its students are most desired by Taiwanese companies. NCKU has 9 colleges, 40 departments, 82 graduate institutes, and 54 research centers, and it is also a major university, educational, and area-network center in Taiwan.NCKU is among the four universities of Taiwan's Public Ivy - the Taiwan Comprehensive University System. Wikipedia.


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Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2016-05-20

A limb movement function evaluating method and the implantation system are provided. The aforementioned system includes a limb fixing device, limb guiding device, driver, actuator, impedance detector, and movement function analyzer. The limb fixing device is used to fix the first end of the user limb. The driver is used to guide the second end of the user limb through the actuator so as to make the second end moving relatively to the first end. The impedance detector is further connected to the driver so as to measure mechanical impedance where the movement of the user limb responses to the driving point of the driver. Finally, the limb movement analyzer compares the measured mechanical impedance and the movement path of the user limb so as to form a limb movement function curve. Therefore, the medical staff can make accurate rehabilitation evaluation according to the limb movement function curve.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2016-08-22

The present invention relates to a biodegradable nanocomplex. The biodegradable nanocomplex comprises a first electrically charged substance, a charge-redistribution substance, a second electrically charged substance and a carried substance, for holding the carried substance inside. The first electrically charged substance and the carried substance have the same electrical polarity, and the biodegradable nanocomplex has a nonuniformally and positively charge distribution along a radial direction thereof. The nonuniformally and positively charge distribution comprises a first electrically charged portion having substantially electrical neutrality, a second electrically charged portion surrounding the first electrically charged portion, and a third electrically charged portion surrounding the second electrically charged portion, in which the third electrically charged portion comprises an outermost surface of the biodegradable nanocomplex, thereby modulating the carried substance towards the desired immune responses via the nonuniformally and positively charge distribution.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2016-09-23

A method for determining a treatment response of cells is provided with steps of providing a un-treated first sample and a treated second sample; applying an electric signal to the first sample and the second sample; obtaining a first motion parameter of the first sample and a second motion parameter of the second sample in the electric signal, respectively; and comparing the first motion parameter and the second motion parameter to determine whether there is a difference. The difference represents that the treatment response exists.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2015-04-01

A digital to analog converter with output impedance compensation has an encoding unit, a current cell array, a summing unit and a compensation unit. The compensation unit is connected to output terminals of the DAC and provides a nonlinear impedance to compensate an original output impedance of the DAC. With the compensated output impedance, the SFDR performance and the linearity of the DAC are improved to obtain a superior input-to-output transfer curve.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2015-09-03

A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system for determining an optical property of a specimen and a method for operating the same are provided. The system includes: a light emitting unit comprising a light emitting terminal, the light emitting unit configured to emit steady light; an optical medium arranged at one end of the device, the optical medium being controllable to switch between multiple optical states and configured to deliver the steady light to the specimen through the optical medium in different optical states, wherein the optical medium comprises a first surface in contact with the light emitting terminal of the light emitting unit and a second surface for contact with the specimen; and a detecting module comprising one or more receiving terminals for receiving light scattered from the specimen for determining the optical property of the specimen.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2016-08-19

An electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell is disclosed. The electrolyte includes a solvent being one selected from a group consisting of gamma-butyrolactone (gBL), propylene carbonate (PC) and 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), and a polymer mixed with the solvent to form an electrolyte solution, wherein when the solvent is one of gBL and PC, the polymer is one selected from a group consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) (PAN-VA) and a combination thereof; and when the solvent is MPN, the polymer includes one of a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide (PEO) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and a mixture of PEO and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).


Patent
National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2016-02-29

A photonic microwave generation apparatus and a method thereof are disclosed. A comb-like optical signal generation module of the photonic microwave generation apparatus generates a comb-like optical signal. The comb-like optical signal is injected into a photonic microwave generation module of the photonic microwave generation apparatus, wherein the photonic microwave generation module includes a microwave generation laser. An optical power and a carrier frequency of the comb-like optical signal are adjusted so as to place the microwave generation laser in period-one nonlinear dynamics, and, at the same time, to phase-lock an oscillation sideband of the period-one nonlinear dynamics by one harmonic of the comb-like optical signal. Under such operation, the microwave generation laser emits an output optical signal that carries a microwave signal of a narrow linewidth and a stable frequency, which can be retrieved from the output optical signal by using a photodetector.


A polymeric ionic liquid has a formula (I), where A_(1), A_(2), B, k, Q, and Z are as defined in the specification. An intermediate polymer for making the polymeric ionic liquid, a process for producing the polymeric ionic liquid, a process for producing a polymer membrane including the polymeric ionic liquid, a process for preparing a gel polymer electrolyte including the polymer membrane, and a binder including the polymeric ionic liquid are also disclosed.


Tseng S.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen X.,Shanghai University | Chen X.,University of the Basque Country
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

We propose fast and robust mode conversion in multimode waveguides based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory. The design of mode converters using the multimode driving for dynamical invariant is discussed. Computergenerated planar holograms are used to mimic the shaped pulses driving the states in three-level quantum systems. We show that the invariant-based inverse engineering scheme reduces mode converter length as compared to the common adiabatic scheme. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Cai J.,National Tsing Hua University | Cai J.,Ghent University | Cai J.,National Cheng Kung University | Cai J.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 4 more authors.
Nature genetics | Year: 2015

Orchidaceae, renowned for its spectacular flowers and other reproductive and ecological adaptations, is one of the most diverse plant families. Here we present the genome sequence of the tropical epiphytic orchid Phalaenopsis equestris, a frequently used parent species for orchid breeding. P. equestris is the first plant with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for which the genome has been sequenced. Our assembled genome contains 29,431 predicted protein-coding genes. We find that contigs likely to be underassembled, owing to heterozygosity, are enriched for genes that might be involved in self-incompatibility pathways. We find evidence for an orchid-specific paleopolyploidy event that preceded the radiation of most orchid clades, and our results suggest that gene duplication might have contributed to the evolution of CAM photosynthesis in P. equestris. Finally, we find expanded and diversified families of MADS-box C/D-class, B-class AP3 and AGL6-class genes, which might contribute to the highly specialized morphology of orchid flowers.


Chiao M.-L.,National Chiao Tung University | Chang D.-W.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Transactions on Computers | Year: 2011

A Flash Translation Layer (FTL) provides a block device interface on top of flash memory to support disk-based file systems. Due to the erase-before-write feature of flash memory, an FTL usually performs out-of-place updates and uses a cleaning procedure to reclaim stale data. A hybrid address translation (HAT)-based FTL combines coarse-grained and fine-grained address translation to achieve good performance while keeping the size of the mapping information small. In this paper, we propose a new HAT-based FTL, called ROSE, which includes three novel techniques for reducing the cleaning cost. First, it reduces high-cost reclamation by preventing data in an entire-block sequential write from being placed into multiple physical blocks while eliminating the cleaning cost resulting from mispredicting random or semisequential writes as sequential ones. Second, it uses a merge-aware cleaning policy that considers both the block age and the merge cost in a HAT-based FTL for improving the cleaning efficiency. Third, it delays the erasure of obsolete blocks and reuses their free pages for buffering more writes. Simulation results show that the proposed FTL outperforms existing HAT-based FTLs in terms of both cleaning cost and flash write time by up to 47 times and 1.6 times, respectively. © 2011 IEEE.


Lin C.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Yang C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Shyua J.Z.,National Chiao Tung University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Utilities are increasing their investment in smart grid technologies because of the rising demand for electricity, the aging transmission and distribution infrastructure in developed countries and the need for real-time visibility of energy supply and demand to optimize service reliability and cost. Government policies are contributing to this rising investment in the smart grid in many countries around the globe. Using Rothwell and Zegveld's innovation policy framework as a starting point, this paper compares innovation policy in smart grids across the Pacific; specifically, China and the USA. This research describes the policy tools used by both countries and presents results that indicate national preferences for innovation policy that differ in the ways in which they are linked with the state of the power system. China has preferred to use "supply-side policy," which focuses on "public enterprise, scientific and technical development and legal regulation." The USA has preferred to use "environmental-side policy," which focuses on "scientific and technical development, financial, political and public enterprise." This paper also describes in detail a number of innovation policies being pursued in the smart grid industry in both China and the USA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lin S.-S.,National Chiao Tung University | Hwang S.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu J.-M.,National Chiao Tung University | Liu J.-M.,University of California at Los Angeles
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is investigated. To generate ultrabroad spectra, a fiber amplifier is used to boost the power launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. After amplification, not only the average power of the noise-like pulses is enhanced but the spectrum of the pulses is also broadened due to nonlinear effects in the fiber amplifier. This leads to a reduction of the peak duration in their autocorrelation trace, suggesting a similar extent of pulse compression; by contrast, the pedestal duration increases only slightly, suggesting that the noise-like characteristic is maintained. By controlling the pump power of the fiber amplifier, the compression ratio of the noise-like pulse duration can be adjusted. Due to the pulse compression, supercontinuum generation with a broader spectrum is therefore feasible at a given average power level of the noise-like pulses launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. As a result, supercontinuum generation with an optical spectrum spanning from 1208 to 2111 nm is achieved using a 1-m nonlinear fiber pumped by amplified noise-like pulses of 15.5 MHz repetition rate at an average power of 202 mW. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Wang H.-W.,National Cheng Kung University
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2014

The rates and styles of channel adjustments following an abrupt and voluminous sediment pulse are investigated in the context of site and valley characteristics and time-varying sediment transport regimes. Approximately 10.5 x 106m3 of stored gravel and sand was exposed when Barlin Dam failed during Typhoon WeiPa in 2007. The dam was located on the Dahan River, Taiwan, a system characterized by steep river gradients, typhoon- and monsoon-driven hydrology, high, episodic sediment supply, and highly variable hydraulic conditions. Topography, bulk sediment samples, aerial photos, and simulated hydraulic conditions are analyzed to investigate temporal and spatial patterns in morphology and likely sediment transport regimes. Results document the rapid response of the reservoir and downstream channel, which occurred primarily through incision and adjustment of channel gradient. Hydraulic simulations illustrate how the dominant sediment transport regime likely varies between study periods with sediment yield and caliber and with the frequency and duration of high flows. Collectively, results indicate that information on variability in sediment transport regime, valley configuration, and distance from the dam is needed to explain the rate and pattern of morphological changes across study periods. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Lin W.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang Y.-C.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Ho C.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University
Stroke | Year: 2013

Background and Purpose-: The neurovascular unit is a major target of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury in the neonatal brain. Although neurons are the cellular target of ischemic preconditioning (IP), vessel tolerance also contributes greatly to protection. Nerves and vessels cross-talk and use common signals during development. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) is an important regulator that inhibits apoptosis. This study hypothesized that cIAP1 is a shared molecule underlying IP-mediated neurovascular protection against HI in the neonatal brain. Methods-: In vivo IP was induced by 2-hour reversible occlusion of right carotid artery 24 hours before HI on postpartum day 7 in rat pups. In vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) preconditioning was established in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and in human microvascular endothelial cell-1 vascular endothelial cells. cIAP1 expression was inhibited by cIAP1 small interfering RNA in vivo or by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA in vitro, or was upregulated by the lentiviral expression system. Results-: IP reduced apoptosis, selectively increased cIAP1 in neurons and vascular endothelial cells, and provided long-term neuroprotection against HI. Intracerebroventricular delivery of cIAP1 small interfering RNA significantly attenuated IP-mediated cIAP1 upregulation and neuroprotection in vivo. In vitro, OGD preconditioning induced cIAP1 and protected against OGD cell death in SH-SY5Y neuronal and human microvascular endothelial cells-1. Knockdown of cIAP1 by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA decreased the protective effect of OGD preconditioning in SH-SY5Y and human microvascular endothelial cell-1, whereas overexpression of cIAP1 by lentivirus protected against OGD in these cells. Conclusions-: cIAP1 is a shared molecule underlying IP-induced protection in neurons and vascular endothelial cells against HI in the neonatal brain. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.


Wu T.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen M.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee Y.-W.,National Chi Nan University | Kuo M.-Y.,National Chi Nan University | Wu Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Super bowl: Fragments of C70 or higher fullerenes were easily prepared from 1,8-bis(arylethynyl)naphthalenes. The curved structures were identified by X-ray crystallography. These rigid bowl-shaped molecules have a deep bowl depth (approximately 2.30 Å) and their bowl inversions proceed via an S-shaped transition structure with a very high inversion barrier (approximately 80 kcal mol-1). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Feng C.-N.,National Cheng Kung University | Kuo M.-Y.,National Chi Nan University | Wu Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Polygons: [8]Circulenes were easily prepared by Pd-catalyzed annulations of tetraiodotetraphenylenes with alkynes. Their saddle-shaped structure with an [8]radialene character was identified by X-ray crystallography. Similar to 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene, they have a tub-shaped eight-membered ring, but all of the bond lengths and bond angles are almost equal. Variable-temperature NMR investigations showed interesting dynamic behavior. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang R.-C.,National University of Kaohsiung | Lin H.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu C.-P.,National Cheng Kung University
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

The photosensing properties of flexible large-area nanowire (NW)-based photosensors are enhanced via in situ Al doping and substrate straining. A method for efficiently making nanodevices incorporating laterally doped NWs is developed and the strain-dependent photoresponse is investigated. Photosensors are fabricated by directly growing horizontal single-crystalline Al-doped ZnO NW arrays across Au microelectrodes patterned on a flexible SiO 2/steel substrate to enhance the transportation of carriers and the junction between NWs and electrodes. The Raman spectrum of the Al:ZnO NWs, which have an average diameter and maximum length of around 40 nm and 6.8 μm, respectively, shows an Al-related peak at 651 cm -1. The device shows excellent photosensing properties with a high ultraviolet/visible rejection ratio, as well as extremely high maximum photoresponsivity and sensitivity at a low bias. Increasing the tensile strain from 0 to 5.6% linearly enhances the photoresponsivity from 1.7 to 3.8 AW -1 at a bias of 1 V, which is attributed to a decrease in the Schottky barrier height resulting from a piezo-photonic effect. The high-performance flexible NW device presented here has applications in coupling measurements of light and strain in a flexible photoelectronic nanodevice and can aid in the development of better flexible and integrated photoelectronic systems. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag erlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li D.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsu P.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsu P.-H.,Kang Ning Junior College
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2012

Scheduling with multiple agents and learning effect has drawn much attention. In this paper, we investigate the job scheduling problem of two agents competing for the usage of a common single machine with learning effect. The objective is to minimize the total weighted completion time of both agents with the restriction that the makespan of either agent cannot exceed an upper bound. In order to solve this problem we develop several dominance properties and a lower bound based on a branch-and-bound to find the optimal algorithm, and derive genetic algorithm based procedures for finding near-optimal solutions. The performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated and compared via computational experiments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhou L.,Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Hu R.Q.,Utah State University | Qian Y.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Chen H.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

In this work, we investigate the properties of energy-efficiency (EE) and spectrum-efficiency (SE) for video streaming over mobile ad hoc networks by developing an energy-spectrum-aware scheduling (ESAS) scheme. To describe a practical mobile scenario, we use a random walk mobility model, in which each node can choose its mobility direction and velocity randomly and independently. Through rigorous analysis and extensive simulations, we demonstrate that the node mobility is beneficial to EE but not to SE. The contributions of this work are twofold: 1) We propose an ESAS scheme with a dynamic transmission range, which significantly outperforms the previous minimum-distortion video scheduling in terms of joint EE and SE performance; 2) We derive an achievable EE-SE tradeoff range and a tight upper/lower bound with respect to energy-spectrum efficiency index for various node velocities. We believe that this work helps to shed insights on the fundamental design guidelines on building an energy and spectrum efficient mobile video transmission system. © 1983-2012 IEEE.


Hsieh M.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Chyi S.-J.,National Kaohsiung Normal University
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2010

Development of fan terraces in incision-dominated river settings documents episodic increases of sediment supply from upland catchments. In the non-glaciated, active mountains of Taiwan, such increases in sediment supply result typically from increases in landslide/debris flow activity. Studying fan terraces, therefore, helps understand the history and nature of mass-wasting processes eroding the mountains. This study explores fan-terrace successions developed at tributary mouths of the Chen-yeo-lan and Lao-nung Rivers in central-southern Taiwan. Judging from the spatial variations of sizes, heights, sequences and sedimentation of the fan terraces, the magnitude and frequency of mass-wasting activities appear to vary from tributary catchment to catchment. Two types of tributary catchment are differentiated, which can be located in close proximity to each other. One has been subject to extremely large but infrequent mass-wasting events, as a result of which high and/or large fan terraces with 100-200 m thick debris-flow/fluvial gravels have been formed. Seven examples of this type of fan terrace have yielded radiocarbon dates of >40. ka, ~18.4. ka, ~13.9. ka, 8.9-9.5. ka, 3.9-4.8. ka, ~3.3. ka, and ~1.4. ka in age. With the availability of multiple dates, this type of fan terrace can be shown to have been created in no more than 1000 years, from the aggradation of thick gravel sequences to subsequent incision. The second type of catchment has been subject to relatively minor but frequent mass-wasting events. Due to repeated incision after each such event, the resultant fan terraces are relatively low and limited in size but have formed over lengthy periods. Although located in the same geological and geomorphic setting, the dated fan-forming mass-wasting events in the Chen-yeo-lan catchment do not appear to have occurred synchronously with those in the Lao-nung catchment. Nor could the succession of these events, or their origins, be clearly linked to known paleo-climate data. These findings highlight the importance of internal factors (e.g., rock-mass strength) in determining the timing, magnitude, and frequency of mass-wasting events in the studied mountains, which are subject to active rock uplift, highly active seismicity, and intense rainfall. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Pang Y.-H.,National University of Kaohsiung
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters | Year: 2013

A planar dual-band quadrature branch-line coupler with coupled lines is presented in this letter. The quarter-wavelength transformers in a conventional branch-line coupler are replaced by coupled lines. With derived explicit design formula, the proposed branch-line coupler can not only be operated at two arbitrary frequencies, but it can also exhibit the required output power ratio at the designed dual frequencies. The measured return losses and isolation are all better than 16 dB at the operating frequencies. Phase imbalance less than 1̂ is obtained. The measured data validate the proposed design methodology, and show good agreement with the simulation results. © 2001-2012 IEEE.


Chang J.-K.,National Central University | Wu C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Sun I.-W.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

A simple, low-cost, and efficient electrochemical strategy, which includes the co-deposition of a Ni-Cu layer, selective etching of Cu from the film (leaving nano-porous Ni), and electrodeposition of Co(OH)2 nano-whiskers on the obtained Ni substrate, is used to construct a nano-structured electrode. This process can be conducted on many conductive surfaces, which can be cheap, flexible, and wearable, and can be integrated into advanced mobile micro-power systems. Due to its unique nano-architecture, the prepared Co(OH)2 electrode shows exceptional energy storage performance as compared to that of the conventional version of the electrode. The optimum specific capacitance obtained in this study, evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), was as high as 2800 F/g. When the CV scan rate was increased from 5 to 200 mV/s, only a 4% decay in the capacitance was found, indicating excellent high-power capability. These characteristics make the nano-structured Co(OH)2 electrode a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Patent
Excel Med LLC and National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2011-06-23

Described herein is a cell tissue gel cross-linked with a cross-linking agent, and a quenching agent bound to a reactive group of the cross-linking agent.


Patent
Excel Med LLC and National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2011-10-07

Use of hyaluronan, either alone or in combination with collagen, for promoting angiogenesis.


Patent
Excel Med LLC and National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2014-01-02

Described herein is a cell tissue gel cross-linked with a cross-linking agent, and a quenching agent bound to a reactive group of the cross-linking agent.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University and Accton Technology Corporation | Date: 2013-04-28

A physiology monitoring system and a physiology monitoring method are disclosed. The physiology monitoring system includes a physiological information sensor, a data analysis device and an application service system. The physiological information sensor is suitable for sensing physiological information of a user. The data analysis device is suitable for receiving data of the physiological information from the physiological information sensor, calculating a plurality of data features of the data, determining whether each data feature has an alert condition event, calculating occurrence probabilities of a plurality of critical condition events or a plurality of physiology condition events by using the corresponding alert condition event or events, and determining a critical condition or a physiology condition of the user according to the occurrence probabilities. The application service system can provide the user with a service according to the critical condition or a physiology condition of the user.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2013.6.5-1 | Award Amount: 1.28M | Year: 2013

The greenXpo consortium comprises a balanced group of policy makers, SMEs, multipliers, technical and innovation experts from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Taiwan that are strongly committed to boosting the green economy through the greenXpo eco-innovation expertise portal. The consortium is best prepared for this action since it comprises organisations that have already led actions to analyse and promote technological and non-technological eco-innovation, eco-innovative policies as well as networks such as ECO-INNOVERA, ECOPOL, ECO-PRO (INNOVATIONSEEDS) and the Eco-Innovation Observatory. Now, the greenXpo partners are pooling their expertise and experience to promote all types of eco-innovation together in a holistic one-stop shop for eco-innovation. The overall objective of greenXpo is to develop a new and innovative web-based tool, to facilitate knowledge transfer, uptake and exploitation of research data, as well as good policy measures related to eco-innovation, and to proactively promote the quality knowledge to policy makers, enterprises and society at large. To ensure synergies and a speedy implementation, greenXpo will build on the state-of-the-art INNOVATIONSEEDS portal that already features 100 European environmental R&D results. The general objective is broken down into six ambitious, specific objectives: 1) to develop a web-based tool for eco-innovation knowledge; 2) to present 190 new eco-innovation cases in a user-friendly manner to market players, policy makers and society; 3) to develop an analytical framework of successful and unsuccessful eco-innovation and to transfer it to policy makers; 4) to promote cross-sectoral information exchange and spill-overs with five traditional industry sectors; 5) to pro-actively promote the eco-innovation knowledge gathered reaching 2,000 policy makers and 120,000 enterprises in Europe and world-wide; and 6) to develop a business model for the continuation of the greenXpo portal.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009.3.1.6.1 | Award Amount: 8.53M | Year: 2009

Coastal areas are vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism to mention some key sectors. There are already many coastal problems including erosion, flood risk and long-term habitat deterioration. As economies continue to develop the asset base at risk will grow, while accelerating climate change will increase the likelihood of damaging extreme events, as well as accelerate habitat decline. Existing coastal management and defence approaches are not well tuned to these challenges as they assume a static situation. THESEUS will develop a systematic approach to delivering both a low-risk coast for human use and healthy habitats for evolving coastal zones subject to multiple change factors. The innovative combined mitigation and adaptation technologies to be considered will include ecologically-based mitigation measures (such as restoration and/or creation of habitats), hydro-morphodynamic techniques (such as wave energy converters, sediment reservoirs, multi-purpose structures, overtop resistant dikes), actions to reduce the impact on society and economy (such as promotion of risk awareness or spatial planning) and GIS-based software to support defence planning. To integrate the best of these technical measures in a strategic policy context we will develop overarching THESEUS guidelines which will considers the environmental, social and economic issues raised in any coastal area. It is in this spirit that THESEUS will advance European and international experience in applying innovative technologies to reducing coastal risks. THESEUS activities will be carried out within a multidisciplinary framework using 8 study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments such as deltas, estuaries and wetlands, where many large cities and industrial areas are located.


News Article | December 30, 2015
Site: news.yahoo.com

The layers of Earth's atmosphere. A mysterious decline in the concentration of free electrons occurs in the D-region of the ionosphere, a phenomenon known as the D-region ledge. Now, researchers suggest the ledge can be explained by the burn up More Scientists may have finally found the cause of a mysterious disappearance of electrons dozens of miles above Earth. It turns out that a layer of invisible meteor dust falling to Earth every day may be sucking up electrons coming from higher in the atmosphere, creating the so-called "D-region ledge," where the concentration of electrons suddenly plunges, Earle Williams, an atmospheric electrician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said earlier this month at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union. Physicists have long been hunting for the disappearing electrons, and had turned to everything from high-flying ice clouds to electrically charged water clusters in the atmosphere to explain the sudden drop-off in this region, he said. [Infographic: Earth's Atmosphere Top to Bottom] "It's the most dramatic gradient anywhere in the ionosphere," Williams said, referring to the part of Earth's upper atmosphere where the D-region ledge is found. "It really is very conspicuous, so it's begging for an explanation." The case of the disappearing electrons Far above Earth's surface, ultraviolet rays from the sun interact with nitric oxide in the atmosphere to produce electrons that travel toward Earth. But since the 1960s, scientists have known that there is an sharp drop in the number of electrons present in the atmosphere at night. This drop was found when rockets first breached the upper atmosphere to sample its temperature, pressure and electron density. This "electron ledge" occurs within the ionosphere's D-layer, which stretches between 37 miles and 56 miles (60 km and 90 km) above the Earth's surface. The D-region ledge plays a critical role in modern communication. The planet itself conducts electricity, as does the layer of the ionosphere above the ledge, but electromagnetic waves don't travel through nonconductive materials, like the electron-depleted region below the ledge. Below the ledge, the electron-depleted air acts as an insulator, forming a layer between the Earth and its atmosphere that enables radio waves and very low frequency electromagnetic waves to circle the globe. [Quiz: The Science of Electricity] The D-region ledge appears most strongly at night and shows up equally in the atmosphere above the poles, the equator and everywhere in between. Yet no one knew why it was there. In the new study, Williams and his colleague, Joanne Wu, a doctoral candidate at the National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan, say that they and other colleagues had looked at many of the prevailing hypotheses to explain the ledge and found most lacking. For instance, some researchers had proposed that ice clouds could be absorbing the free electrons. But ice clouds tend to clump closer to Earth's high latitudes, whereas the D-region ledge is equally prominent everywhere from the poles to the equator. Then they came upon a 1980 paper in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, which suggested that another layer of the atmosphere, called the sodium layer, could be attributed to fine dust from meteoroids. In that explanation, as space rocks travel through the thin upper atmosphere, they jostle nitrogen and oxygen molecules, heating up in the process. As they fall farther, they collide with more atoms in the more densely packed atmosphere, becoming hot enough to boil, at which point individual sodium atoms peel off from the meteoroid. That made the team wonder: Could the heating of tiny meteors also explain the D-region ledge? In this new theory, minerals such as iron and silicon, which make up a much greater part of meteoroids than sodium, would also boil off the meteoroid, forming a cloud of smoke and dust. Free-floating silicon and iron atoms would then smash into oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere, knocking free electrons in the iron and silicon atoms' outer electron shells. The electrons from the meteor boiling would then transform into faint glimmers of light too small to see with the naked eye. Meanwhile, the meteor dust itself would bind to the free electrons that were formed when the sun's ultraviolent rays interacted with the atmosphere. The reason the D-region ledge is so prominent at night is because ultraviolet radiation from the sun during the day is 100 times greater than at night, so the production of free electrons dwarfs the ledge effect during the day. If the theory is right, then "you'll form a thick zone of dust descending very slowly due to gravity," Williams said. "Eventually all this dust comes to the Earth's surface. It's about 100 tons per day worldwide," but we can't easily detect it because the tiny particles are so small. But why does this ledge occur 53 miles (85 km) above Earth? In the researchers' theory, the meteoroids at this height are mostly the right size and are traveling at the right speeds to burn up at that height in the atmosphere. The meteors that could explain the ledge would need to be small: roughly about 10 micrograms. And they would need to be "slow," traveling about 29,000 to 33,500 miles per hour (13 to 15 km/s) — just above the escape velocity of Earth, Williams said. There may be plenty of these small, slow meteors. Both radars, which show little pings of electricity when teensy meteoroids burn up in the atmosphere, as well as a few satellites, which have been pockmarked by the barrage of myriad tiny meteoroids, suggested that the vast majority of space rocks that bombard the Earth every day are these small, unimpressive specimens. Though they don't leave a stunning light trail like so-called shooting stars, small meteors could be a thousandfold more numerous than the cosmic debris that lights up the night sky, Williams said.   "It's a very plausible idea," said Morris Cohen, an ionospheric physicist at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, who was not involved in the study. "There's a lot of circumstantial theory to back up to the idea, it's all consistent." However, it will be tough to test the idea directly, as that region of the atmosphere is so inaccessible, Cohen said. "It's too high to reach with balloons, and it's too low to hit with satellites," Cohen told Live Science. The D-region ledge is not the only strange boundary in that portion of the atmosphere — the region between 50 and 62 miles (80 and 100 km) above the surface also has an "airglow" layer, caused by the sharp rise in the ionization of hydroxyl, as well as multiple sodium layers, said Steven Cummer, an electrical engineer at Duke University in North Carolina, who was not involved in the study.  "This region is so hard to measure that little work has been done to see if these boundaries are connected," Cummer told Live Science in an email. "But the idea that a fundamental feature of Earth's atmosphere is created by the continual deposition of material by meteors is pretty exciting." Copyright 2015 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


Li S.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Cheng Y.-C.,Tainan University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2010

Recently, fuzzy time series have attracted more academic attention than traditional time series due to their capability of dealing with the uncertainty and vagueness inherent in the data collected. The formulation of fuzzy relations is one of the key issues affecting forecasting results. Most of the present works adopt IFTHEN rules for relationship representation, which leads to higher computational overhead and rule redundancy. Sullivan and Woodall proposed a Markov-based formulation and a forecasting model to reduce computational overhead; however, its applicability is limited to handling one-factor problems. In this paper, we propose a novel forecasting model based on the hidden Markov model by enhancing Sullivan and Woodall's work to allow handling of two-factor forecasting problems. Moreover, in order to make the nature of conjecture and randomness of forecasting more realistic, the Monte Carlo method is adopted to estimate the outcome. To test the effectiveness of the resulting stochastic model, we conduct two experiments and compare the results with those from other models. The first experiment consists of forecasting the daily average temperature and cloud density in Taipei, Taiwan, and the second experiment is based on the Taiwan Weighted Stock Index by forecasting the exchange rate of the New Taiwan dollar against the U.S. dollar. In addition to improving forecasting accuracy, the proposed model adheres to the central limit theorem, and thus, the result statistically approximates to the real mean of the target value being forecast. © 2010 IEEE.


Kao C.,National Cheng Kung University | Hwang S.-N.,Ming Chuan University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

A recent development in DEA (data envelopment analysis) examines the internal structure of a system so that more information regarding sources that cause inefficiency can be obtained. This paper discusses a network DEA model which distributes the system inefficiency to its component processes. The model is applied to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on firm performance in a banking industry. The results show that the impact of IT on firm performance operates indirectly through fund collection. The impact increases when the IT budget is shared with the profit generation process. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Benbrik R.,Cadi Ayyad University | Chen C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Nomura T.,Korea Institute for Advanced Study
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

ATLAS and CMS recently showed the first results from run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at s=13 TeV. A resonant bump at a mass of around 750 GeV in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum was indicated and the corresponding diphoton production cross section is around 3-10 fb. Motivated by the LHC diphoton excess, we propose that the possible resonance candidate is a Higgs singlet. To produce the Higgs singlet via the gluon-gluon fusion process, we embed the Higgs singlet in the framework of the vector-like triplet quark (VLTQ) model. As a result, the Higgs singlet decaying to the diphoton final state is via VLTQ loops. Using the enhanced number of new quarks and new Yukawa couplings of the VLTQs and Higgs singlet, we successfully explain the diphoton production cross section. We find that the width of the Higgs singlet is below 1 GeV, its production cross section can be of the order of 1 pb at s=13 TeV, and the branching ratio for it decaying to a diphoton is around 0.017 and is insensitive to the masses of VLTQs and new Yukawa couplings. We find a strong correlation between the Higgs Yukawa couplings to s-b and c-t; the resulted branching ratio for t→ch can be 1.1×10-4 when the constraint from Bs oscillation is applied. With the constrained parameter values, the signal strength for the standard model Higgs decaying to a diphoton is μγγ<1.18, which is consistent with the current measurements at ATLAS and CMS. © 2016 American Physical Society.


Cheng Y.-C.,Tainan University of Technology | Li S.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2012

Since its emergence, the study of fuzzy time series (FTS) has attracted more attention because of its ability to deal with the uncertainty and vagueness that are often inherent in real-world data resulting from inaccuracies in measurements, incomplete sets of observations, or difficulties in obtaining measurements under uncertain circumstances. The representation of fuzzy relations that are obtained from a fuzzy time series plays a key role in forecasting. Most of the works in the literature use the rule-based representation, which tends to encounter the problem of rule redundancy. A remedial forecasting model was recently proposed in which the relations were established based on the hidden Markov model (HMM). However, its forecasting performance generally deteriorates when encountering more zero probabilities owing to fewer fuzzy relationships that exist in the historical temporal data. This paper thus proposes an enhanced HMM-based forecasting model by developing a novel fuzzy smoothing method to overcome performance deterioration. To deal with uncertainty more appropriately, the roulette-wheel selection approach is applied to probabilistically determine the forecasting result. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated through real-world forecasting experiments, and performance comparison with other benchmarks is conducted by a Monte Carlo method. © 2012 IEEE.


Chou C.-Y.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Ma M.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Yang T.-T.,National Defense Medical Center
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: To identify the determinants of schizophrenia-specific HRQoL levels, five types of factors (i.e., sociodemographic, clinical, psychopathological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial factors) were simultaneously investigated in the same cross-sectional sample. Methods: A total of 120 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia but not spectrum conditions were recruited by convenience sampling. Subjective HRQoL levels were measured using the disease-specific S-QoL-C. After sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, psychopathological data were self-rated with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) by professionally trained raters. Two neurocognitive assessments were conducted by licensed occupational therapists (OTs). Psychosocial factors were assessed using self-reports measures, including the, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Social Impact Scale (SIS). All measures were administered in random order. OTs, PANSS raters, and participants were blinded to score computation, and multiple hierarchical regression with the stepwise method was conducted. Results: The S-QoL-C scores were most strongly affected by psychosocial factors and the psychopathological factors, followed by clinical and sociodemographic factors. Total scores on the BDI-II had the largest contributions to S-QoL-C index scores and seven of eight S-QoL-C subscales. In addition, the GSES, RSES, and SIS showed effects across the S-QoL-C subscales. The BDI-II, GSES, and RSES all influenced the S-QoL-C index scores, in addition to the number of hospitalizations. Conclusion: Psychosocial factors and psychopathological factors measured by the BDI-II had the greatest impact on schizophrenia-specific HRQoL levels. Psychiatric treatment programs focusing on psychosocial status and depressive symptoms can improve schizophrenia-specific HRQoL levels. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

TAINAN, Taiwan--(BUSINESS WIRE)--National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) in southern part of Taiwan recently run a Demo Day to show students’ originality and creative designs. Taiwan's leading paper manufacturer Yuen Foong Yu Group CEO Shou-Chuan Ho attended the opening ceremony on November 23 and said, “As NCKU alumnus, I am proud to see that students at C-Hub are doing something new and innovative.” As the biggest supporter of C-Hub, Ho said, “C-Hub provides students the opportunities to combin


Show K.-Y.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Lee D.-J.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang S.-C.,Kuo General Hospital | Yang Y.-J.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES:: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is identified as a major liver disease in children. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of pediatric NAFLD and the correlation between serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and metabolic characteristics in children. METHODS:: A total of 748 schoolchildren, ages 6 to 12 years, were enrolled in 2009. The body weight and height were measured in the morning before intake. Laboratory tests included overnight fasting serum lipids, insulin, liver enzymes, and RBP4 levels. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasound in 219 volunteers. RESULTS:: The rates of NAFLD were 3% in the normal-weight, 25% in the overweight, and 76% in the obese children. Twenty (22%) of obese children had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. In children with NAFLD, younger age and higher body mass index (BMI), insulin/homeostasis model of assessment, and male sex rate were associated with abnormal liver function. Stepwise increments in BMI, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment, and ALT were found in children with normal livers to simple steatosis, and to steatosis with abnormal ALT. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that serum RBP4 levels (P = 0.048), ALT (P = 0.048), and BMI (P < 0.001) were independently predictors of pediatric NAFLD. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only serum triglycerides levels were positively related to RBP4 levels (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: Higher RBP4 and ALT levels as well as BMI are independently associated with pediatric NAFLD in Taiwan. In addition, an increment in RBP4 levels was positively correlated to hypertriglyceridemia in children. Copyright © 2013 by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

TAINAN, Taiwan--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Dr. Zena Werb, professor and vice chair of the Department of Anatomy at University of California (UC), San Francisco, USA, received an honorary doctoral degree from National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Tainan, Taiwan, on November 10. The honorary degree was conferred on Dr. Werb in recognition of her contributions to breast cancer research, extracellular microenvironment, educational achievements as well as her excellent personality. Upon receiving the degree


Chou Y.-C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lu K.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Tu K.N.,University of California at Los Angeles
Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports | Year: 2010

Transition-metal silicides have been used in the salicide process to form gate and source/drain contacts in MOSFET devices. How to control silicide formation in shallow junction devices and the kinetics of single silicide phase formation between the Si and metal thin films have received extensive attention and study. As the trend of miniaturization of Si devices moves from 45 nm to smaller sizes, the formation of nanoscale metal silicides has attracted renewed interest in silicide formation. Nanostructures in Si nanowires have been studied for basic components in electronic and optoelectronics devices, especially for biosensors. Well-defined nanoscale building blocks such as ohmic contacts and gates on Si nanowires must be developed in order to be assembled into functional circuit components in future nanotechnology. It requires a systematic study of solid-state chemical reactions in the nanoscale to form these circuit components. In this review, we compare silicide formation in thin films and in nanowires and focus on the nucleation and growth of epitaxial silicides. The difference of silicide formation between the thin film case and the nanowire case, especially the kinetics of nucleation and growth, will be emphasized.


Shanmugam V.,Institute of Nano Science and Technology | Selvakumar S.,National Cheng Kung University | Yeh C.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Noninvasive techniques, such as breath tests (urea breath test), blood pressure measurements using a sphygmomanometer and electrocardiography, were employed by a physician to perform classical diagnosis. The use of state-of-the-art noninvasive therapies at the organ level in modern medicine has gradually become possible. However, cancer treatment demands spatially and temporally controlled noninvasive therapy at the cell level because nonspecific toxicity often causes complicated side effects. To increase survival in cancer patients further, combination therapy and combination drugs are explored which demand high specificity to avoid combined-drug side effects. We believe that high specificity could be obtained by implementing near-infrared (NIR) light-assisted nanoparticles in photothermal therapy, chemotherapy, and photodynamic therapy. To refine this therapy and subsequently achieve high efficiency, novel nanomaterials have been designed and modified either to enhance the uptake and drug delivery to the cancer site, or control treatment to administer therapy efficiently. These modifications and developments have been demonstrated to achieve spatial and temporal control when conducting an in vivo xenograft, because the NIR light penetrated effectively the biological tissue. The nanoplatforms discussed in this review are grouped under the following subheadings: Au nanorods (NRs), Au nanoshells, other Au-related nanomaterials, graphene oxide, upconversion nanoparticles, and other related materials (including materials such as CuS, Fe3O4-related systems, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)). © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Wong J.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Wu B.-R.,Chang Gung University | Lin M.-F.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

This paper investigates strain effects on the electronic properties of single-layer and bilayer graphene using a first-principles method. The deformation significantly alters energy dispersion, band overlap, band gap, and the band edges of graphenes. Fermi velocity behaves both linearly and nonlinearly with the strains, depending on the types of deformation and the direction of the Fermi velocity. In bilayer graphene, the uniaxial strain enhances the band overlap by 2 orders of magnitude. A semimetal-insulator transition occurs when bilayer graphene is under a compressive uniaxial strain along the zigzag chain direction. These strain-dependent results are useful for acquiring the intralayer and interlayer atomic relations or Slonczewski-Weiss- McClure parameters. The intralayer coupling γ 0 under the H-strain and interlayer couplings γ 1, γ 3, and γ 4 under the P-strain decrease dramatically as the strain increases. Nevertheless, interlayer couplings vary more slowly with the H-strain than the P-strain. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Chen Y.-F.,Cornell University | Chen Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Serey X.,Cornell University | Sarkar R.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

The ability to controllably handle the smallest materials is a fundamental enabling technology for nanoscience. Conventional optical tweezers have proven useful for manipulating microscale objects but cannot exert enough force to manipulate dielectric materials smaller than about 100 nm. Recently, several near-field optical trapping techniques have been developed that can provide higher trapping stiffness, but they tend to be limited in their ability to reversibly trap and release smaller materials due to a combination of the extremely high electromagnetic fields and the resulting local temperature rise. Here, we have developed a new form of photonic crystal "nanotweezer" that can trap and release on-command Wilson disease proteins, quantum dots, and 22 nm polymer particles with a temperature rise less than ∼0.3 K, which is below the point where unwanted fluid mechanical effects will prevent trapping or damage biological targets. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Kang P.,Cornell University | Serey X.,Cornell University | Chen Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Erickson D.,Cornell University
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Near-field optical techniques have enabled the trapping, transport, and handling of nanoscopic materials much smaller than what can be manipulated with traditional optical tweezers. Here we extend the scope of what is possible by demonstrating angular orientation and rotational control of both biological and nonbiological nanoscale rods using photonic crystal nanotweezers. In our experiments, single microtubules (diameter 25 nm, length 8 μm) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (outer diameter 110-170 nm, length 5 μm) are rotated by the optical torque resulting from their interaction with the evanescent field emanating from these devices. An angular trap stiffness of κ = 92.8 pN·nm/rad2·mW is demonstrated for the microtubules, and a torsional spring constant of 22.8 pN·nm/rad 2·mW is measured for the nanotubes. We expect that this new capability will facilitate the development of high precision nanoassembly schemes and biophysical studies of bending strains of biomolecules. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Wu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Mou C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Lin H.-P.,National Cheng Kung University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Good control of the morphology, particle size, uniformity and dispersity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is of increasing importance to their use in catalyst, adsorption, polymer filler, optical devices, bio-imaging, drug delivery, and biomedical applications. This review discusses different synthesis methodologies to prepare well-dispersed MSNs and hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNs) with tunable dimensions ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers of different mesostructures. The methods include fast self-assembly, soft and hard templating, a modified Stöber method, dissolving-reconstruction and modified aerogel approaches. In practical applications, the MSNs prepared by these methods demonstrate good potential for use in high-performance catalysis, antireflection coating, transparent polymer-MSNs nanocomposites, drug-release and theranostic systems. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Weng M.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang Y.-T.,Chang Gung University | Liu M.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Lu T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Objective: Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are at a higher risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, little is known with regard to the risk of developing cancers other than NHL. The authors aimed in this study to compare the incidence of cancer in various sites among patients with pSS with the general population of Taiwan. Methods: The authors used National Health Insurance claims data to establish a nationwide population cohort of 7852 patients with pSS from 2000 to 2008 who did not have cancer prior to diagnosis of pSS. Incidence and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer in various sites were calculated. Results: Among patients with pSS, 277 (2.9%) developed cancer. The SIR for cancer was 1.04 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.18) among patients of all ages with pSS and was 2.19 (95% CI 1.43 to 3.21) for patients aged 25-44 years. Female patients with pSS had a higher risk of NHL (SIR 7.1, 95% CI 4.3 to 10.3), multiple myeloma (SIR 6.1, 95% CI 2.0 to 14.2) and thyroid gland cancer (SIR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3) and a lower risk of colon cancer (SIR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.65). In contrast, male patients with pSS were not at a higher risk of developing cancer in particular sites. Conclusion: Patients with pSS, overall, did not have higher risk of cancer, and only patients aged 25-44 years were at an increased risk of cancer compared with their counterparts in the general population. Cancer screening for patients with pSS, especially female patients, should focus on NHL and multiple myeloma and thyroid gland cancer.


Lambert N.,RIKEN | Chen Y.-N.,National Cheng Kung University | Cheng Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Li C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2013

Recent evidence suggests that a variety of organisms may harness some of the unique features of quantum mechanics to gain a biological advantage. These features go beyond trivial quantum effects and may include harnessing quantum coherence on physiologically important timescales. In this brief review we summarize the latest results for non-trivial quantum effects in photosynthetic light harvesting, avian magnetoreception and several other candidates for functional quantum biology. We present both the evidence for and arguments against there being a functional role for quantum coherence in these systems. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Shiau J.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Wu F.-C.,National Taiwan University
Water Resources Research | Year: 2013

For reservoirs that are operated for multiple purposes such as water supply, flood control, and power generation, any attempts to incorporate environmental flow targets in the reservoir operation rules need to take into account both the human and ecosystem demands. To date, however, none of the reservoir operation schemes that consider environmental flow requirements includes subdaily flow regimes and is able to optimize for multiple reaches. Here, we address the temporal and spatial issues associated with the optimal environmental flow and operation strategies for a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan. We propose an environmental flow proportion strategy and three-period release approach, and multireach operation scenarios that simultaneously optimize reservoir performances and environmental flow objectives at subdaily to interannual timescales for a maximum of three connected reaches. Our results imply that taking into account the environmental flow objectives does not necessarily degrade the overall reservoir performance due to the positive effect on flood control, which in turn would compensate for the adverse effects on domestic water supply and hydropower generation. The three-period release approach benefits mainly the subdaily flow regime, while the environmental flow proportion strategy benefits primarily the daily flow regime. Spatially, a mutual exclusion is observed between the reaches above and below a diversion weir, a fact that revises the conventional perception that restoring the flow regimes of a downstream reach would automatically restore those of upstream reaches. An overall evaluation reveals that the three-reach scenario outperforms the two-reach scenarios, which then outperform the one-reach scenarios. The one- or two-reach scenario that incorporates the midstream reach may be taken as an alternative because such scenario would benefit the upstream or downstream reach in addition to the midstream reach. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Xia P.,Qualcomm | Liu C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Andrews J.G.,University of Texas at Austin
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Coordinated multi-point (CoMP) communication is attractive for heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) for interference reduction. However, previous approaches to CoMP face two major hurdles in HCNs. First, they usually ignore the inter-cell overhead messaging delay, although it results in an irreducible performance bound. Second, they consider the grid or Wyner model for base station locations, which is not appropriate for HCN BS locations which are numerous and haphazard. Even for conventional macrocell networks without overlaid small cells, SINR results are not tractable in the grid model nor accurate in the Wyner model. To overcome these hurdles, we develop a novel analytical framework which includes the impact of overhead delay for CoMP evaluation in HCNs. This framework can be used for a class of CoMP schemes without user data sharing. As an example, we apply it to downlink CoMP zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF), and see significant divergence from previous work. For example, we show that CoMP ZFBF does not increase throughput when the overhead channel delay is larger than 60% of the channel coherence time. We also find that, in most cases, coordinating with only one other cell is nearly optimum for downlink CoMP ZFBF. © 2002-2012 IEEE.


Patent
National Taiwan University and National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2012-11-14

Disintegrin variants and pharmaceutical uses thereof are disclosed. The disintegrin variant includes an isolated polypeptide that has integrin v3 receptor-antagonist activity and substantially reduced integrin IIb3 and/or 51 receptor-blocking activity as compared to a wild-type disintegrin. The variant is encoded by a modified disintegrin nucleotide sequence that encodes a modified amino acid sequence, resulting in a polypeptide having substantially reduced affinity to integrin IIb3 and/or 51 as compared to a wild-type disintegrin. The variant is useful for treatment and/or prevention of v3 integrin-associated diseases in a mammal, which include osteoporosis, bone tumor or cancer growth, angiogenesis-related tumor growth and metastasis, tumor metastasis in bone, malignancy-induced hypercalcemia, angiogenesis-related eye diseases, Pagets disease, rheumatic arthritis, and osteoarthritis. The angiogenesis-related eye diseases include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, corneal neovascularizing diseases, ischaemia-induced neovascularizing retinopathy, high myopia, and retinopathy of prematurity.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University and National Taiwan University | Date: 2013-11-20

The present invention provides a method for the prognosis of lung cancer patient based on the expression levels of miRNA-135b, LZTS1, LATS2 and nuclear TAZ. The invention also provides a method for treatment of lung cancer.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

TAINAN, Taiwan--(BUSINESS WIRE)--National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) professor Dr. Shih-Kang Lin working with scientists from Osaka University discovered silver erupting like a volcano at the nanoscale. The research was published in the journal Scientific Reports on October 5, 2016. Prof. Lin from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NCKU, was invited by Prof. Katsuak Suganuma from the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, for a three-month visit t


Miao S.P.,National Cheng Kung University | Woodard R.P.,University of Florida
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

We argue that the fine tuning problems of scalar-driven inflation may be worse than is commonly believed. The reason is that reheating requires the inflaton to be coupled to other matter fields whose vacuum fluctuations alter the inflaton potential. The usual response has been that even more fine-tuning of the classical potential V(φ) can repair any damage done in this way. We point out that the effective potential in de Sitter background actually depends in a complicated way upon the dimensionless combination of φ/H. We also show that the factors of H which occur in de Sitter do not even correspond to local functionals of the metric for general geometries, nor are they Planck-suppressed. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .


Chang-Chien L.-R.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin W.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Yin Y.-C.,Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

As wind power retains a significant proportion of generation mix in the electric system, we foresee that less fossil fuel units will be on service. Under this situation, it may impact system's frequency security due to the lack of frequency support from units. To make up for such a system change, wind turbines should actively provide frequency response upon request. For wind turbines to achieve this goal, active power output of the wind turbine should be controllable so that the generating margin could be preserved for frequency response. Therefore, the presentation of this paper will begin with the demonstration of the control scheme for the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the methodology in regulating wind power upon operator's request, while stability is assured under variant wind speeds. Following that, this paper will explore several operating strategies for DFIGs to support system frequency with less sacrifice in the wind energy production. Simulation results show that the proposed strategies can enhance regulation performance in the high wind penetrated power system. © 2010 IEEE.


Tan H.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Tan H.-T.,Central China Normal University | Zhang W.-M.,National Cheng Kung University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper, the exact non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University and Metal Industries Research & Development Center | Date: 2014-05-09

A coil-integrated pad assembly for inductively heating a hyperthermia needle device includes a barrier pad and an electromagnetic unit. The barrier pad is adapted to be inserted into a patients body and to be placed between the hyperthermia needle device and a non-target tissue of the patients body when the hyperthermia needle device penetrates a target tissue. The electromagnetic unit has a coil that is at least partially disposed in the barrier pad and that is electrifiable to generate a magnetic field sufficient to inductively heat the hyperthermia needle device.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University and Metal Industries Research & Development Center | Date: 2014-05-19

An electromagnetic hyperthermia assembly includes: a substrate; a plurality of hyperthermia needles each having a needle portion that extends through and downwardly from the substrate and that has a needle tip distal from the substrate; and a guiding plate having a plurality of through holes. The needle portions of the hyperthermia needles respectively and removably extend through the through holes such that the guiding plate is movable along the needle portions and between the substrate and the needle tips of the needle portions. The through holes keep the needle tips spaced apart from each other at predetermined positions.


Patent
National Cheng Kung University and Metal Industries Research & Development Center | Date: 2013-12-26

The disclosure provides a thermotherapy needling instrument with tissue injection, including: a casing, an outer needle, an inner needle and a working needle. The casing has an inlet, an outlet and an inner channel. The outer needle is connected to the casing, and is in communication with the inner channel. The inner needle is disposed in the inner channel of the casing and the outer needle, and the inner needle has at least one opening The at least one opening is in communication with the inner channel so that the cooling agent flows in circulation. The working needle is connected to the outer needle so as to receive the injectant for injection and tissue ablation. By using the thermotherapy needling instrument, when sampling or injection is required during thermotherapy, the injection efficacy can be achieved by withdrawing the inner needle only. Therefore, efficacy of tissue injection and ablation thermotherapy can be achieved.


Patent
Metal Industries Research & Development Center and National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2013-02-12

A deep magnetic field generating apparatus includes a first coil unit and a second coil unit. The second coil unit is connected with the first coil unit, and disposed around the first coil unit horizontally. Accordingly, the deep magnetic field generating apparatus can generate a desired deep magnetic field.


Patent
Metal Industries Research & Development Center and National Cheng Kung University | Date: 2013-02-12

An electromagnetic thermotherapy needle includes a needle body, a covering element, and a holding portion. The material of the needle body includes a magnetically susceptible material. The needle body is formed integrally as one piece and includes a front portion and a rear portion. The front portion has a tip end, and a radial width of the front portion is larger than that of the rear portion. The covering element covers the rear portion, and includes a magnetically non-susceptible material. The holding portion is connected with the covering element or the needle body.


Tarn W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lai M.,National Cheng Kung University
Cell Division | Year: 2011

Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.© 2011 Tarn and Lai; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Huang Y.-H.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Wu J.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on imported energy, and pursuit of sustainable development, renewable energies are extremely important for Taiwan's future energy supply. Since Taiwan's feed-in tariff (FIT) is still in its initial stage, one must examine whether the current system is compatible with a well-designed FIT scheme. This study examines the main features of Taiwan's FIT system and assesses design options using several criteria. Additionally, one of the most important elements of a FIT scheme, namely, a tariff system, is discussed. Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs, and the guaranteed-return tariff system coincides with the spirit underlying leading global FITs; however, many issues, such as setting goals by stages, refinement of the tariff calculation methodology, and elimination of other non-economic barriers, must be addressed to achieve future developmental goals and green industry growth. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sato S.,Zikei Hospital | Yeh T.L.,National Cheng Kung University
CNS Drugs | Year: 2013

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is frequently unrecognized and underdiagnosed by clinicians and thus remains untreated or inappropriately treated in routine clinical practice. Although the symptoms of MDD are widely acknowledged and recognized by clinicians, numerous epidemiological studies have reported that this disorder is more prevalent than had previously been thought, and that it is challenging to diagnose and treat, particularly because somatic symptoms and comorbid conditions are common in real clinical situations. MDD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with higher healthcare costs and more severe functional impairment. Therefore, optimal treatment for MDD should include collaboration focussed on comorbid physical diseases, rehabilitation aimed at restoring social functioning, and pharmacotherapy designed to ensure complete remission including psychological and physical symptoms, as well as functional recovery. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013.


Rosen J.E.,University of Waterloo | Chan L.,University of Waterloo | Shieh D.-B.,National Cheng Kung University | Gu F.X.,University of Waterloo
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2012

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have proven to be highly effective contrast agents for the magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of solid tumors. This review examines the various techniques that are available to selectively target SPIONs toward a wide variety of cancerous tissues, with specific attention given to how the surface properties imparted by various targeting ligands affect the particles tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics. An in-depth examination of the various human cell lines utilized to test the assorted targeting methods is also presented, as well as an overview of the various types of cancer against which each targeting method has been utilized for both in vivo and in vitro studies. From the Clinical Editor: Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are very potent negative contrast materials for magnetic resonance imaging-based diagnosis. This comprehensive review examines techniques that selectively target SPIONs toward a wide variety of malignancies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Liu Y.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chopra N.,University of Maryland University College
Automatica | Year: 2013

In teleoperation systems operating in complex environments, due to the cognitive limitations of the human operator and lack of complete information about the remote environment, safety and performance of such systems can potentially be comprised. In order to ensure the safety and enhance the efficiency of complex teleoperation systems operating in cluttered environments, in this paper we investigate a semi-autonomous control framework for bilateral teleoperation. The semi-autonomous teleoperation system is composed of heterogeneous master and slave robots, where the slave robot is assumed to be a redundant manipulator. Considering robots with different configurations, and in the presence of dynamic uncertainties and asymmetric communication delays, we first develop a control algorithm to ensure position and velocity tracking in the task space. Additionally in the absence of dynamic uncertainty, and in the presence of human operator and environmental forces, all signals of the proposed teleoperation system are proven to be ultimately bounded. The redundancy of the slave robot is then utilized for achieving autonomous sub-task control, such as singularity avoidance, joint limits, and collision avoidance. The control algorithms for the proposed semi-autonomous teleoperation system are validated through numerical simulations on a non-redundant master and a redundant slave robot. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cheng K.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Je M.,Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters | Year: 2013

This letter presents the design and analysis for a low-phase-noise and low-power Colpitts quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO). The Colpitts QVCO employs current switching to lower the phase noise, gm enhancement to improve the startup condition in the oscillator core, and device reuse to realize anti-phase injection locking for QVCO operation. The proposed Colpitts QVCO has superior phase noise than cross-coupled LC tank VCO and outperforms conventional QVCO in phase noise, quadrature phase accuracy, and tuning range. The fabricated 0.18 μm CMOS Colpitts QVCO draws 500 μA from a 1.5 V power supply and exhibits a phase noise of -118 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and a quadrature phase error of 0.3° at the center frequency of 488 MHz. © 2001-2012 IEEE.


Chung C.-C.,University of Manchester | Chung C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University
Research Policy | Year: 2013

This article focuses on the research of RTDI policies (research, technology, development and innovation), and the theme of this article is to link the three indicators together: RTDI policy-making process - the contents of RTDI policies - the appropriateness of RTDI policies on the configuration of the national, the sectoral and the technological innovation systems. We define the configuration of the three innovation systems as national, sectoral and technological innovation system (NSTIS). We assume the policy-making process of RTDI policies would shape the contents of RTDI policies. Once the contents of RTDI policies are implemented, the RTDI policies would influence, whether appropriate or inappropriate, on the NSTIS. We use the Taiwanese pharmaceutical biotechnology policies as empirical cases. On the basis of the empirical cases of Taiwan, we find that the consistency and appropriateness of RTDI policies are shaped by four variables: polity, horizontal coordination, vertical coordination and the involvement of external stakeholders. The policy-making process indeed shapes the RTDI policies which further shape the development of NSTIS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Huang Y.-H.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Wu J.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Energy | Year: 2013

Between 1996 and 2006, CO2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hsu W.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsu W.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2010

In this paper, a feature extraction method through the time-series prediction based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. The ANFIS time-series prediction together with multiresolution fractal feature vectors (MFFVs) is applied for feature extraction in motor imagery (MI) classification. The features are extracted from the electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded from subjects performing left and right MI. Two ANFISs are trained to perform time-series predictions for respective left and right MI data. Features obtained from the difference of MFFVs between the predicted and actual signals are then calculated through a window of EEG signals. Finally, a simple linear classifier, namely linear discriminant analysis (LDA), is used for classification. The proposed method is estimated with classification accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) on six subjects from two data sets. I also assess the performance of proposed method by comparing it with well-known linear adaptive autoregressive (AAR) model, AAR time-series prediction, and neural network (NN) time-series prediction. The results indicate that ANFIS time-series prediction together with MFFV features is a promising method in MI classification. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


TAINAN, Taiwan--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The Techno Art Program of National Cheng Kung University was honored to collaborate with the Art & Technology Association Taiwan and Goethe Institute, in organizing the 3rd ISAT: Collision, Collaboration and the Future of Artsci, held at NCKU International Conference Hall and NCKU Art Center from 14 November to 17 November 2016, The conference, organized by Assistant Professor Ming Turner from the Institute of Creative Industries Design and Techno Art Progra


Ho S.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee D.-J.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

The problem of climate change arising mainly from CO2 emission is currently a critical environmental issue. Biofixation using microalgae has recently become an attractive approach to CO2 capture and recycling with additional benefits of downstream utilization and applications of the resulting microalgal biomass. This review summarizes the history and strategies of microalgal mitigation of CO2 emissions, photobioreactor systems used to cultivate microalgae for CO2 fixation, current microalgae harvesting methods, as well as applications of valuable by-products. It is of importance to select appropriate microalgal species to achieve an efficient and economically feasible CO2-emission mitigation process. The desired microalgae species should have a high growth rate, high CO2 fixation ability, low contamination risk, low operation cost, be easy to harvest and rich in valuable components in their biomass. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Chang W.-J.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2016

The current practice of evaluating the liquefaction resistance of gravelly soils with shear-wave velocity relies on the assumption that liquefiable gravelly soils behave as sandy ones. Recent laboratory tests on gap-graded gravelly sands show that the cyclic resistance is dominated by the packing conditions of the sand matrix, while the shear-wave velocity is affected by the gravel content. Taking these findings into account, the gravel content-corrected shear-wave velocity is derived based on the time-average equation of lumped gravel particles and the sand matrix. Based on analyses of case histories, a three-step procedure, which includes screening of gravelly sands, computation of stress-normalized, gravel content-corrected shear-wave velocity, and cyclic resistance evaluation using the modified correlation between the corrected shear wave velocity and the cyclic resistance, is proposed for evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio of gravelly sands. Comparisons with case histories show that the proposed procedure can significantly improve the estimation of cyclic resistance. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Wu J.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2011

This study simulates the kinematic behavior of sliding blocks of rock in the earthquake-induced Tsaoling landslide using seismic discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). We assume sliding rocks are elastic blocks. Detailed joint shear strength parameters are set in DDA in a manner compatible with what is known about the Tsaoling landslide mechanisms. Landslide run-out distance, information from survivors, and the post-failure topography are used to constrain the computational results. Calculations demonstrate that sliding rocks from the ground surface decoupled from those near the basal shear surface during the landslide. Local residents survived because surficial rocks were never deeply buried during the landslide. Additionally, shear strength parameters of material in the deposition area strongly govern final deposit topography. Computational results correlate well with actual post-failure topography. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang L.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsiung C.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

This paper presents a control scheme based on a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) to achieve both voltage control and damping enhancement of a grid-connected integrated 80-MW offshore wind farm (OWF) and 40-MW marine-current farm (MCF). The performance of the studied OWF is simulated by an equivalent doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) driven by an equivalent wind turbine (WT) while an equivalent squirrel-cage rotor induction generator (SCIG) driven by an equivalent marine-current turbine (MCT) is employed to simulate the characteristics of the MCF. A damping controller of the STATCOM is designed by using modal control theory to contribute effective damping characteristics to the studied system under different operating conditions. A frequency-domain approach based on a linearized system model using eigenvalue techniques and a time-domain scheme based on a nonlinear system model subject to various disturbances are both employed to simulate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. It can be concluded from the simulated results that the proposed STATCOM joined with the designed damping controller is very effective to stabilize the studied system under disturbance conditions. The voltage fluctuations of the AC bus subject to the active-power variations of the studied system can also be effectively controlled by the proposed control scheme. © 2010 IEEE.


Lee C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Yang J.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

This paper studies the transient response of the output voltages of a Ballard-Mark-V 35-cell 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack with power conversion for applications in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) under load changes. Four types of pulse-width modulated (PWM) dc-dc power converters are employed to connect to the studied fuel cell in series for converting the unregulated fuel cell stack voltage into the desired voltage levels. The fuel cell model in this paper consists of the double-layer charging effect, gases diffusion in the electrodes, and the thermodynamic characteristic; PWM dc-dc converters are assumed to operate in continuous-conduction mode with a voltage-mode control compensator. The models of the study's fuel cell and PWM dc-dc converters have been implemented in a Matlab/SIMULINKTM environment. The results show that the output voltages of the studied PEMFC connected with PWM dc-dc converters during a load change are stable. Moreover, the model can predict the transient response of hydrogen/oxygen out flow rates and cathode and anode channel temperatures/pressures under sudden change in load current. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hsiao P.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Liou Y.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Teng H.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTA), of 17-37 μm in thickness, detached from anodic oxidized Ti foils were used as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photovoltaic measurements under frontside and backside illumination showed that frontside illumination geometry provided better cell performance than backside illumination did. A cell assembled with 30 μm thick NTA film produced the greatest photocurrent and light conversion efficiency. Despite an advantageous architecture for electron transport, electron trapping remained a limiting factor for both illumination geometries, due to the presence of crystal grains in the NTA walls. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) analysis showed that electron transport in the front-illuminated cells comprises both trap-free and trap-limited diffusion modes, whereas electrons in the back-illuminated cells travel only by trap-limited diffusion. The trap-free diffusion mechanism determines front-illuminated cell performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis showed the front-illuminated NTA-based DSSCs have a charge collection efficiency of better than 90%, even at 30 μm NTA film thickness. Large crystal size results in low trap state density in the NTA film, and this effect may result in a more extensive trap-free diffusion zone in the films, which facilitates charge collection. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Tsai J.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin C.-K.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

Novel main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (MS-SPEEKs) are synthesised by reacting the sulphonic acid groups of pristine SPEEKs with 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid to improve the nano-phase separated morphology of the material. 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy are employed to determine the structure and composition of main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulphonated polymers. Flexible and tough membranes with reasonable thermal properties are obtained. The MS-SPEEKs show good hydrolytic stability, and water uptake values ranging from 15% to 30% are observed. Compared to Nafion 117®, the methanol permeability of the MS-SPEEKs is dramatically reduced to 8.83 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 to 3.31 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. The proton conductivity increases with increasing temperature, reaching 0.013-0.182 S cm-1. A maximum power density and open circuit voltage of 115 mW cm-2 and 0.830 V are obtained at 80 °C, respectively, which is significantly greater than the values generated with Nafion 117 ®. The introduction of pendent side-chain-type sulphonic acid groups increases the single-cell performance by more than approximately 20%; thus, the lower water diffusivity, methanol permeability, electro-osmotic drag coefficient and high cell performance indicated that MS-SPEEK is a promising candidate for DMFC applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Sou S.-I.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Communications Letters | Year: 2010

In this letter, we investigate the impact on connectivity metric when a power-saving model is applied to a vehicular network. An analytic model with linear time complexity is developed to compute the optimal number of active roadside units under a connectivity constraint. We provide guidelines for applying a power-saving model in a vehicular network. The results are very useful for the ministry of transportation. © 2006 IEEE.


Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is implemented to analyze the total electron content (TEC) anomalies after Japan’s Tohoku earthquake that occurred at 05:46 on March 11, 2011 (UTC) (Mw=9). 2DPCA and TEC data processing were conducted just after this devastating earthquake. Analysis results show an earthquakeassociated TEC anomaly near the epicenter that began at 05:47. This may represent an extension of the precursor of the earthquake, to the precursor of China’s Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008, detected by the study of Lin [2012], for which the data were obtained at a height of 150-200 km by the FORMOSAT-3 satellite system. It is impossible that such precursor caused by the acoustic shock waves. Another TEC anomaly near the epicenter occurred at 05:53, and this initiated the propagation of the tsunami effect related to the ionosphere through the acoustic shock waves from the epicenter. However, the TEC anomalies did not appear to be affected by a contemporaneous geomagnetic storm and other non-earthquake effects. The propagation of anomalous fluctuation could be an early warning of the tsunami for the regions far from the epicenter as it began to propagate with the higher speed of 3960-4950 km/h than the tsunami speed (720-800 km/h). © 2015 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. All rights reserved.


Yang C.-C.,Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Shieh M.-D.,National Cheng Kung University
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper, a state-of-the-art machine learning approach known as support vector regression (SVR) is introduced to develop a model that predicts consumers' affective responses (CARs) for product form design. First, pairwise adjectives were used to describe the CARs toward product samples. Second, the product form features (PFFs) were examined systematically and then stored them either as continuous or discrete attributes. The adjective evaluation data of consumers were gathered from questionnaires. Finally, prediction models based on different adjectives were constructed using SVR, which trained a series of PFFs and the average CAR rating of all the respondents. The real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) was used to determine the optimal training parameters of SVR. The predictive performance of the SVR with RCGA (SVR-RCGA) is compared to that of SVR with 5-fold cross-validation (SVR-5FCV) and a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) with 5-fold cross-validation (BPNN-5FCV). The experimental results using the data sets on mobile phones and electronic scooters show that SVR performs better than BPNN. Moreover, the RCGA for optimizing training parameters for SVR is more convenient for practical usage in product form design than the timeconsuming CV. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsu J.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2010

The equations governing the mode conversion between an electromagnetic wave and the plasma wave are derived from the relativistic Vlasov equation. They are further reduced to a two dimensional matrix equation involving only two electric field components. It is shown that the mode conversion efficiency diminishes to zero at both 0° and 90° of incidence angles, becomes insignificant beyond 45° and tends to improve with higher plasma temperature. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Chen K.R.,National Cheng Kung University
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

The diffraction limit sets the smallest achievable linewidth at half the wavelength. With a subwavelength plasmonic lens allowing one to reduce the diffraction via an asymmetry and to generate and squeeze the wave functions, an incident light is focused by the aperture to a single line with its width smaller than the limited value in the intermediate zone. The focused fields are capable of propagating in free space. This light focusing process, besides being of academic interest, is expected to open up a wide range of application possibilities. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Du S.-W.,China Steel Corporation | Chen W.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Lucas J.A.,University of Newcastle
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

To evaluate the utility potential of pretreated biomass in blast furnaces, the fuel properties, including fuel ratio, ignition temperature, and burnout, of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, and Madagascar almond undergoing torrefaction and carbonization in a rotary furnace are analyzed and compared to those of a high-volatile coal and a low-volatile one used in pulverized coal injection (PCI). The energy densities of bamboo and Madagascar almond are improved drastically from carbonization, whereas the increase in the calorific value of rice husk from the pretreatment is not obvious. Intensifying pretreatment extent significantly increases the fuel ratio and ignition temperature of biomass, but decreases burnout. The fuel properties of pretreated biomass materials are superior to those of the low-volatile coal. For biomass torrefied at 300. °C or carbonized at temperatures below 500. °C, the pretreated biomass can be blended with coals for PCI. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen H.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2015

Dear readers, I have been serving as the Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Wireless Communications for almost three and a half years, and it is time for me to step down to take a break after days and nights of working hard for this magazine. My term as the Editor-in-Chief will officially end at the end of June 2015, and then the baton will be passed to Dr. Hamid Gharavi, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States, who will be the next Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Wireless Communications. Therefore, I have invited Dr. Hamid Gharavi to write a message in this Editor's Note to mark this handover. In fact, Dr. Gharavi has been serving as Associate Editor-in-Chief for this magazine since June 2014. Therefore, the handover will definitely be a soft handover, ensuring that the editorial work of this magazine will continue seamlessly. Dr. Gharavi is a longtime IEEE volunteer, and I am fully confident that he has all the experience needed to bring this magazine to a new high level under his strong leadership. © 2015 IEEE.


Huang C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University
Geosynthetics International | Year: 2011

Performance-based designs for footings placed on reinforced ground that take their ductile behaviour into account require better knowledge of the settlement of footings subjected to peak footing loads. The validity of theoretical formulae for ultimate bearing capacity and settlement for footings on reinforced level ground, proposed previously by the author, are examined, based on recent experimental evidence. It was found that the formula for the ultimate bearing capacity increase in reinforced level sandy ground, based on the deep-footing and wide-slab mechanisms proposed by the author, works well in evaluating ultimate bearing capacity ratios for footings placed on level ground reinforced with high-tensile-stiffness reinforcement. The upper and lower bounds for footing settlements under peak footing loads were derived based on 42 loading test results. They were then applied to three additional series of loading tests using various types of reinforcing material, such as a relatively extensible polymeric mesh and three-dimensional geocell layers with a deep embedment. There was good agreement between the theoretical and measured values of ultimate footing settlement ratios for reinforced ground reinforced with a high-tensilestiffness geogrid. It was indicated that using three-dimensional geocell reinforcement with a deep embedment may generate greater footing settlements than those predicted by the upper-bound equation proposed here. It was also indicated that using high-tensile-stiffness geogrids in reinforced compacted dense sand tends to generate slightly lower values of ultimate footing settlement ratio, SRf, than those predicted using the lower-bound equation proposed here. Settlement characteristics of compacted sands, in contrast to the pluviated sands conventionally used for deriving experimental databases, may account for this discrepancy; this requires more study in the future. © 2011 Thomas Telford Ltd.


Chin W.-L.,National Cheng Kung University
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2012

In this paper, blind symbol synchronization for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems based on the cyclic prefix (CP), considering time-variant long-echo fading channels, is introduced. The basic idea of our contribution is to obtain an estimate of channel-tap powers using the correlation characteristics of the CP. The maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation of the correlation characteristics is derived and employed for channel-tap power estimation. An intersymbol-interference (ISI) metric is minimized using the estimate of channel-tap powers. The metric, which is based on the statistical properties of received samples, turns the mobility factor into a coefficient, which can be simply compensated. The metric is suitable for both short-and long-echo channels. The performance is analyzed. The proposed algorithm has moderate complexity. Simulations confirm the advantages of the proposed estimator. © 2011 IEEE.


Lee H.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2011

An experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the cooling rate on the morphology of the Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed during the solidification of bulk eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder and Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints. It is shown that the cooling rate has a significant effect on the solidification time and therefore influences both the size and the morphology of the final Ag3Sn compounds. Specifically, the Ag 3Sn compounds exhibit a particle-like → needle-like → needle-like with plate-like tails → plate-like → large plate-like evolution as the cooling rate is reduced. The large plate-like Ag3Sn compounds are observed only in the Sn-3.5Ag/Cu specimens. The large plate-like Ag3Sn formed at the interface layer due to the formation of a Cu 6Sn5 IMC layer at the interface. Thus, it is inferred that the Cu6Sn5 interfacial layer in the Sn-3.5Ag/Cu specimens leads to a local enrichment of Ag at the interface and prompts the formation of large Ag3Sn IMCs via the Cu6Sn5 heterogeneous nucleation sites. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ho S.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen W.-M.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

This study aimed to achieve higher CO2 consumption ability and lipid productivity of an indigenous microalgal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N by a two-stage cultivation strategy. The microalga strain was first cultivated with 10% CO2 using a nutrient-rich medium to promote cell growth, which was followed by a nutrient-deficient condition to trigger lipid accumulation. The optimal biomass productivity, lipid productivity, and CO2 consumption rate were 292.50mgL-1d-1, 78.73mgL-1d-1 (38.9% lipid content per dry weight of biomass), and 549.90mgL-1d-1, respectively. This performance is superior to the results from most of the related studies. Under the nutrient-deficient condition, the microalgal lipid was mainly composed of C16/C18 fatty acids (accounting for 89% of total fatty acids), which is suitable for biodiesel synthesis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee M.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Shen M.-R.,National Cheng Kung University
American Journal of Translational Research | Year: 2012

During the progression of epithelial cancer, cells usually lose epithelial characteristic features and gain a mesenchymal phenotype. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy worldwide. Despite the generally good prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer patients, many patients still die as a result of metastasis and recurrence. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in the metastasis of primary tumors and provides molecular mechanisms for cervical cancer metastasis. Here we provide an up-to-date overview regarding the program of EMT in cervical cancer. In the stepwise progression of cervical cancer, human papilloma viral proteins contribute to the cell transformation and the conversion of typical epithelial cells to the epithelial carcinoma cells with hybrid epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. Molecules related to the EMT program of cervical cancer cells are summarized in this review paper. Several soluble factors acting on their cognate receptors stimulate the mesenchymal transition of cervical epithelial cells. Ion transport system as well as cytoskeletal modulators also stimulate the progression of EMT program in cervical carcinoma cells. Transcriptional factors such as Snail, Twist1, Twist2, and six1 homeoproteins are involved in the complicated regulation and cervical cancer metastasis. Among the various signalings associated with EMT program, Snail is a central transcription factor which governs EMT program. In contrast to tumor promoters, several tumor suppressors such as SFRP1/2 and LMX-1A have been reported to suppress tumorigenesis as well as metastatic spread through inhibiting the EMT program.


Lin L.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders | Year: 2015

Abstract Little research focuses on the caregiving experiences of Taiwanese mothers of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The effects of the caregiving burden and coping strategies on the depressive symptoms of 60 of these mothers were examined. The adolescents they cared for ranged from 10 to 19 years old (mean age: 14.7 years). Mothers completed self-report written questionnaires. Findings indicated that greater use of problem-focused rather than emotion-focused coping was generally associated with lower levels of caregiver burden and fewer depressive symptoms. Problem-focused coping acted as a buffer when caregiving burdens were high. Specifically, actively confronting, planning, and suppressing competing activities as coping strategies moderated the effect of the caregiving burden on the depressive symptoms of these mothers. This significant buffering effect reflected adaptation to the caregiving burden. Awareness of the effects of coping strategies on maternal well-being could serve as a valuable guide for practitioners. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen M.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Sonaje K.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen K.-J.,National Tsing Hua University | Sung H.-W.,National Tsing Hua University
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

Success in the oral delivery of therapeutic insulin can significantly improve the quality of life of diabetic patients who must routinely receive injections of this drug. However, oral absorption of insulin is limited by various physiological barriers and remains a major scientific challenge. Various technological solutions have been developed to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin. Having received considerable attention, nano-sized polymeric particles are highly promising for oral insulin delivery. This review article describes the gastrointestinal barriers to oral insulin delivery, including chemical, enzymatic and absorption barriers. The potential transport mechanisms of insulin delivered by nanoparticles across the intestinal epithelium are also discussed. Finally, recent advances in using polymeric nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery and their effects on insulin transport are reviewed, along with their future. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


It is widely recognized that fishing states are obliged to exercise flag state responsibility over their vessels. In an attempt to become a responsible fishing actor, Taiwan has endeavored to manage its distant water fishing fleet in accordance with international fisheries management. However, the long-standing problems of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, fish laundering, and fishing overcapacity, which remained unsolved during the 1990s and early 2000s, brought its management capability into doubt. Failure to address these problems undermined the credibility of all management measures and ultimately resulted in a recommendation adopted by International Commission for the Conservation of the Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) in 2005. This recommendation significantly affected Taiwan's distant water fishing policy. This paper examines how Taiwan assimilated this outside force into its fishing policy as a new response to international fisheries management and how fishers perceived this response. It shows that Taiwan's efforts in controlling distant water fisheries marked a big change, specifically manifest in three noticeable actions - reducing excessive bigeye-targeted efforts, deterring IUU fishing, and strengthening fisheries management. The study advises that management of small tuna vessels be effectively exercised and recommends future actions on providing subsidies for fishers to partially offset costs incurred by rule compliance, streamlining their administrative work, enhancing communication with them, putting more enforcement and meaningful penalties in place. Finally, the study indicates the existence of an interaction in the international fisheries management scheme, potentially favoring Taiwan to bargain for fishing rights and a favorable status in the participation of regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) in the future if it continues to exercise effective control of distant water fisheries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cheng C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

A newly isolated indigenous bacterium Pseudomonas sp. CL3 was able to produce novel cellulases consisting of endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase (80 and 100kDa), exo-β-1,4-d-glucanase (55kDa) and β-1,4-d-glucosidase (65kDa) characterized by enzyme assay and zymography analysis. In addition, the CL3 strain also produced xylanase with a molecular weight of 20kDa. The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was 50, 45, 45 and 55°C for endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase, exo-β-1,4-d-glucanase, β-1,4-d-glucosidase and xylanase, respectively. All the enzymes displayed optimal activity at pH 6.0. The cellulases/xylanase could hydrolyze cellulosic materials very effectively and were thus used to hydrolyze natural agricultural waste (i.e., bagasse) for clean energy (H 2) production by Clostridium pasteurianum CH4 using separate hydrolysis and fermentation process. The maximum hydrogen production rate and cumulative hydrogen production were 35ml/L/h and 1420ml/L, respectively, with a hydrogen yield of around 0.96molH 2/molglucose. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Chu C.-S.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Lo Y.-L.,National Cheng Kung University
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

This paper presents a highly sensitive dissolved oxygen sensor comprising an optical fiber coated at one end with core-shell silica nanoparticles and platinum(II) meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) embedded in an n-octyltriethoxysilane (Octyl-triEOS)/tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS) composite xerogel. The sensitivity of optical fiber dissolved oxygen sensor is quantified in terms of the ratio I0/I100, where I0 and I100 represent the detected fluorescence intensities in fully deoxygenated and fully oxygenated water, respectively. The experimental results show that the optical fiber dissolved oxygen sensor has a sensitivity of approximately 117 in the range 0-40 mg/L of dissolved oxygen concentrations. The experimental results show that as compared to the other optical dissolved oxygen sensors based on Pt(II) or Ru(II) complexes, the proposed optical fiber dissolved oxygen sensor has the highest sensitivity. In addition to the increased surface area per unit mass in the sensing surface, the dye entrapped in the core of silica nanoparticles also play an important role in the increased sensitivity because of the penetration of substantial amount oxygen molecules through the porous silica shell. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tsai Y.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin S.-I.,National Cheng Kung University
Gait and Posture | Year: 2013

Walking barefoot or in socks is common for ambulating indoors and has been reported to be associated with increased risk of falls and related injuries in the elderly. This study sought to determine if gait patterns differed between these two conditions for young and older adults. A motion analysis system was used to record and calculate the stride characteristics and motion of the body's center of mass (COM) of 21 young and 20 older adults. For the walking tasks, the participants walked on a smooth floor surface at their preferred speed either barefoot or in socks in a random order. The socks were commercially available and commonly used. The results demonstrated that while walking in socks, compared with walking barefoot, older adults adopted a more cautious gait pattern including decreased walking speed and shortened stride length as well as reduced COM minimal velocity during the single limb support phase. Young adults, however, did not demonstrate significant changes. These findings suggest that walking with socks might present a greater balance threat for older adults. Clinically, safety precautions about walking in socks should be considered to be given to older adults, especially those with balance deficits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lee C.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Yan J.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

Pt/β-Ga2O3/GaN (metal/oxide insulator/semiconductor, MIS) hydrogen sensor diode was fabricated with the reactive β-Ga2O3 oxide layer grown directly on the GaN layer using a photoelectrochemical oxidation method. When the MIS hydrogen sensor diode was exposed to dilute hydrogen ambience, the reactive oxide layer not only helped to increase the number of trapping sites for the hydrogen atoms at the Pt/β-Ga2O3 interface, but its associated series resistance could also be decreased as well. Therefore, an increase in current was observed when the sensor diode was exposed to a dilute hydrogen ambience due to the changes in barrier height and series resistance. In addition, the physical and chemical hydrogen sensing mechanisms were investigated. Based on the steady-state analysis at different operating temperatures, the corresponding enthalpies for hydrogen adsorbed at the interface and also in the oxide layer were -8.5 and -7.65 kJ/mol, respectively. A negative enthalpy indicated that the kinetic reaction was exothermic in force. Therefore, the hydrogen response decreased in response to an increase in operating temperature. Furthermore, based on the kinetic analysis, the activation energy value was 1.99 kJ/mol. The small activation energy value indicated that the rapid hydrogen detection could be achieved with the Pt/β-Ga2O3/GaN hydrogen sensor diode. Crown Copyright © 2010.


Wu M.-L.,National Cheng Kung University
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2010

This paper emphasizes a rapid assessment methodology using by the design of experiments (DOE) to determine fatigue life of ball grid array (BGA) components in the random vibration environment. The most critical dynamic loading occurs when the dominant frequency approaches the natural frequency of the printed wiring board (PWB) assembly. This research has chosen to work within the PWB clamped on two opposite edges. One only needs to think of commercial personal portable electronic products such as cell phones, personal data assistants, and entertainment devices (as exemplified by the I-pod) to realize that electronic products are no longer exclusively used in a relatively benign office environment. The approach in this paper will involve global (entire PWB) and local (particular component of interest) modeling approach. In the global model approach, the vibration response of the PWB will be determined. This global model will give us the response of the PWB at specific component locations of interest. This response is then fed into a local stress analysis for accurate assessment of the critical stresses in the solder joints of interest. The stresses are then fed into a fatigue damage model to predict the life. The solution is achieved by using a combination of finite element analysis (FEA) and physics of failure to BGA damage analysis. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen S.C.,National Cheng Kung University | Lue C.S.,National Cheng Kung University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

We report the results of a A 27 l nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the mixed valence compound CeFe2 Al10 at temperatures between 4 and 300 K. This material has been of current interest due to indications of Kondo insulator behavior. Five A 27 l NMR resonance lines that are associated with five nonequivalent crystallographic aluminum sites have been resolved. For each individual aluminum site, the temperature-dependent NMR Knight shift exhibits a character of valence fluctuation behavior with a broad maximum at around 70 K. At low temperatures, the Knight-shift results show a thermally activated feature, indicating the formation of an energy gap in this material. We interpret the Knight-shift data based on a proposed model density of states and the gap size of 110 K is properly estimated. A further analysis indicates that the observed gap in CeFe2 Al10 should be characterized as a pseudogap with a finite number of carriers at the Fermi level. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Shen S.C.,National Cheng Kung University
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2010

Inhalation therapy is being applied in the home care field to a gradually increasing degree, and therefore two issues of great importance are the convenience and portability of medical devices. Hence, this paper presents a novel cymbal-shaped high power microactuator (CHPM) that includes a ring-type piezoelectric ceramics and a cymbal-shaped micro nozzle plate. The latter can focus energy on the center of the nozzle plate and induce a large force, which provides the cymbal-shaped microactuator with high power to spray medical solutions of high-viscosity produce ultra-fine droplets and increase the atomization rate. In this research, the CHPM can reduce liquids to droplets of an ultra-fine size distribution (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter, MMAD), increasing the nebulizing rate and enabling the spraying of high-viscosity fluids (lavender oil, cP > 3.5). The ultra-fine droplets were of a MMAD of less than 4.07 μm at 127.89 kHz and the atomization rate was 0.5 mL/min. The drive voltage of CHPM was only 3 V, and the power consumption only one-tenth that of ultrasonic atomizers at 1.2 W. The simulation and experiments carried out in this study proved that the droplets are much smaller than those produced by current conventional devices. Therefore, the CHPM is suitable for use in the development of a convenient and portable inhalation therapy device. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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