National Cereals Research Institute

Ibadan, Nigeria

National Cereals Research Institute

Ibadan, Nigeria
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Adeoye S.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Agbonlahor M.U.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Ashaolu O.F.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Ugalahi U.B.,National Cereals Research Institute
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development | Year: 2017

The prevalence of child labour use in the agricultural sector has been widely reported however, the intensity of its use is most times masked and marred by the informal and culturally ingrained nature of peasant agriculture. The study aims at understanding the dimensions and causes of child labour among rural farm households in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 128 rural households for the survey; a total of 352 children (5-17years) were interviewed to elicit first hand data for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on child farm work hours, household size, income, farm size, distance of home to school and other relevant socioeconomic characteristics. Analytical techniques used were measures of central tendency and dispersion, and censored Tobit regression model. Results show that the average age of children is 10 years and many of these children (67.3%) are reported to be living with their biological parents. While less than a third (26%) of the children work in paid and non-family farms, the average weekly work hours per child was found to be 31.31 which increases with the age of the child. With reference to loss in school time due to farm work, it was found that rural children in farm households sacrificed an average of 12.9 hours per week (42.9%) of school time to work on the farm; this varies from season to season. Age and education level of the household head, farm and household size, lack of child-level schools in the community, distance of home to school, sex of child, absence of tarmac roads to community and proximity of households to major roads were identified as factors that influence the prevalence and intensity of child farm labour use. The study concluded that rural infrastructure development and households' economic empowerment initiatives are central to child labour reduction strategies.

Nwilene F.E.,Africa Rice Center | Onasanya A.,Africa Rice Center | Togola A.,Africa Rice Center | Oyetunji O.,Africa Rice Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

Rice and maize intercrop is a common feature of traditional upland rice cultivation in Nigeria. Stemborer larvae cause significant yield loss in rice. The study aimed at identifying stemborer resistant status of upland NERICA rice varieties and evaluating the effectiveness of maize as a trap crop to protect upland NERICA rice varieties against stemborers. The resistance status of 7 NERICA rice and 2 other rice varieties to stemborer was evaluated in 2006 and 2007 under natural infestation maize and cassava intercropping systems in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. In 2006 study, NERICA1, NERICA2 and NERICA5 together with the resistant check LAC23 were classified as stemborer resistant (SBR) and NERICA3, NERICA4, NERICA6 and NERICA7 together with susceptible check OS6 were classified as stemborer susceptible (SBS). The SBR varieties (NERICA1 and NERICA2) from the 2006 study intercropped with maize and cassava in 2007 revealed the effectiveness of maize as a trap crop and cassava as a refuge for generalist predators against stemborer damage on upland rice. Maize appeared an effective trap crop for rice stemborers because there was a marked and significant reduction in the stemborer attack on rice in the NERICA rice/maize intercrops (GrB cluster) as compared to the NERICA rice monocrops (GrA cluster) and NERICA rice/cassava intercrops (GrA cluster). Maliarpha separatellaRagonot was the predominant stemborer species on rice followed by Sesamia calamistis Hampson. It was concluded that NERICA1 and NERICA2 could be recommended to farmers in stemborer prone areas and that maize was a suitable trap crop for managing rice stemborers. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Ismaila U.,National Cereals Research Institute | Gana A.S.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Dogara D.,Agricultural Development Project Minna
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Nigeria agriculture is characterized by small holdings, low capitalization and low yield per unit of land. Cereal crops are the major dietary energy supplier all over the world and particularly in Nigeria. In most part of Africa, cereals supplies about 80% of the energy requirements. Major cereals produced in Nigeria include rice, sorghum, maize, sugar cane and pear millet. They are the mostly grown in the savannah agro ecological zone of the country. Factors militating their level of productivity include climatic factors (rainfall, temperature and solar radiation), edaphic factors, migration, government policies, use of local varieties, predominance of weeds, pest and diseases and the scourge of HIV/AID. Solving Nigeria cereal problems is an indirect and powerful approach to alleviate poverty and improve the standard of living for Nigeria farmers. There is the need to have a systematic collaborative research to find solution to the problems posed. The government should be consistent in its agriculture policies such as provision of credit facilities, ban on importation of cereal crops and subsidizing agricultural inputs. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Ajala S.O.,National Cereals Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

This study was conducted with the objective of predicting and comparing expected gains for two selection indices and to aid identification of a better index to improve maize populations for a target environment, in this case, small-farm conditions. Data from S2 lines from each of three populations evaluated at three locations in 1988 were subjected to (a) an index that uses economic weights and (b) rank summation index (RSI) that is both weight and parameter free. Responses to single trait selections were much higher than using an index. RSI was considered a better index because it was operationally more efficient and simpler. Selection through RSI will in addition to improving the aggregate trait in the desired direction, improve grain yield and will not increase height much.

Abah J.,National Cereals Research Institute | Ishaq M.N.,National Cereals Research Institute | Wada A.C.,National Cereals Research Institute
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Food security and sustainable agriculture have become a burning issues in the national discuss at all levels of government as plans are being made for a changing global climate and increasing global population. One of the most important environmental challenges facing the developing world is how to meet current food needs without undermining the ability of future generations to meet theirs. Agricultural production must be sufficient to feed us now and in the future. Evidently, the current state of agricultural technology will not suffice to meet the production challenges ahead. Innovative technologies have to be exploited in order to enable sufficient food availability in the future. In the current practice of modern agriculture which relies on high inputs such as fuel-powered tractors, chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides, deploying a smart mix of farming techniques using genetic engineering of biotechnology and integrating same into the traditional smallholders farming system offer a bright prospect of meeting the growing demand for food by improving both yield and nutritional quality of crops and reducing the impact on the environment. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Gana A.K.,National Cereals Research Institute
International Sugar Journal | Year: 2014

In field trials in 2008-09 at sugarcanethe National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, Nigeria, impact of mulching with cover crops or intercropping sugarcane was assessed to elicitsugarcane alternative cultural ways of reducing the weeding frequency in cane fields managed by resource poor growers. Cane plots covered or mulched with sugarcane trash had a significantly lower weed cover score than other treatments. This resulted in better sugarcane growth and higher cane yield (t/ha) than the sugarcane intercropped with cover crops namely melon (local variety), macuna and cowpeas(Ife brown). The control, neither intercropped nor mulched, hadthe poorest weed control and lowest sugarcane yield.

Danbaba N.,National Cereals Research Institute | Anounye J.C.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Gana A.S.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Abo M.E.,National Cereals Research Institute | Ukwungwu M.N.,National Cereals Research Institute
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to evaluate the cooking and eating quality of Ofada rice. Quality parameters measured were; volume increase, grain elongation (GE), water uptake (WU), cooking time (CT), solids in cooking gruel (SCW), gelatinization temperature (GT) and amylose content (AC). The result showed that Ofada rice had high cooked rice volume with length and breadth increase of 152.54% and 87.85% respectively. GE ratio ranged from 1.24-1.75 with Ofada 10 having the lowest value and Ofada 11 having the highest value. The highest length/breadth ratio of cooked rice (3.68) was recorded by Ofada 8, while Ofada 3 had the lowest (2.49). GE index ranged from 0.99-1.44 with Ofada 10 having the lowest value and Ofadas 4 and 11 having the highest value. WU ratio, CT, SCW and AC of Ofada rice samples ranged from 174.0-211.0, 17-24 min, 0.8-2.1%, and 19.77-24.13% respectively. The GT were low to intermediate. There was significant positive correlation between AC and WU ratio, while significant positive association was observed between length/breadth ratio and AC. Based on the result of the study, Ofada rice have good cooking and eating quality, hence selection for improvement based on this parameters will be a right step in the right direction. © 2011.

Wada A.C.,National Cereals Research Institute | Joshua S.D.,University Of Maiduguri | Ndarubu A.A.,National Cereals Research Institute | Usman A.,National Cereals Research Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2010

The farming systems of Zone II of the Niger State Agricultural Development Project (NSADP) were surveyed in September 2000. All the nine Local Government Areas (LGAs) covering three ecological zones of the zone were covered in the selec-tion of villages for the group and individual interviews with farmers in the administration of questionnaires. Farms were visited and assessed for extent of damage caused by insect, weeds, vertebrate and avian pests as well as diseases. Weeds of economic importance in the zone were Striga hermonthica (Del) Benth; Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour) Clayton; Ageratum conyzoides L.; Cyprus rotundus, C. distans and Commelina benghalensis L. Maize streak virus, rice blast and groundout rosette were the damaging diseases of maize, rice and groundnut, respectively. Bush fowl, Quelea sp. and monkeys were the most serious avian and vertebrate pests, respectively. Farmers' management practices for these pests were documented. Short-and long-term solutions to these problems are to be addressed through on-station and on-farm research priorities. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Mamza W.S.,National Cereals Research Institute | Zarafi A.B.,Ahmadu Bello University | Alabi O.,Ahmadu Bello University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2010

Diseased castor leaves were collected from the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) fields and taken to the laboratory for isolation. Leaves were grown on Potato Dextrose Agar with Streptomycin and incubated for seven days. Grown cultures were observedunder microscope and Fusarium pallidoroseum was isolated as confirmed by IMI. Inoculated leaves showed symptoms of wilts and blight. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Mamza W.S.,National Cereals Research Institute | Zarafi A.B.,Ahmadu Bello University | Alabi O.,Ahmadu Bello University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2010

Six fungicides at three rates (1.5x, 1.0x and 0.5x mg a.i/ml) were evaluated on radial growth and and regrowth of mycelia of Fusarium pallidoroseum isolated from castor (Ricinus communis) in vitro. It was observed that the fungicides (Benomyl, Benomyl + Thiram, Mancozeb, Metalaxyl-m + Thiomethoxan + Difenconazol, Tricyclazole and Carbendazim + Mancozeb) at all the concentrations tested inhibited mycelial growth and regrowth of the fungus. Benomyl, Benomyl + Thiram and Tricyclazole completely inhibited mycelia growth of fungus at 1.5x, 1.0x and 0.5x mg a.i/ml. Metalaxyl- m + Thiomethoxan + Difenconazole, Carbendazim + Mancozeb partially inhibited radial growth and re-growth of mycelia only at 1.5x mg a.i/ml, not at 1.0x and 0.5x mg a.i/ml. The inhibitory effect of all the fungicides on mycelia growth and re-growth was greatest at 1.x5 mg a.i/ml. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

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