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Hocking J.S.,University of Melbourne | Stein A.,CSL Ltd | Conway E.L.,CSL Ltd | Regan D.,University of New South Wales | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Although tobacco- and alcohol-associated head and neck cancers are declining in the developed world, potentially human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharnygeal cancers are increasing. Methods: We analysed oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer rates in Australia in 1982-2005. Cancers from the oropharynx (base of tongue, tonsil and other specific oropharyngeal sites) were classified as potentially HPV associated (n=8844); cancers in other oral cavity and oropharyngeal sites not previously associated with HPV were classified as comparison (n=28 379). Results: In 2000-2005, an average of 219, 159 and 110 cancers of the tonsil, base of tongue and other oropharyngeal sites were diagnosed annually, with incidences of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.15), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.59) per 100 000, respectively. An average of 1242 comparison cancers were diagnosed annually (6.17 (95% CI: 6.03, 6.31) per 100 000). In 1982-2005, there were significant annual increases in tonsil (1.39% (95% CI: 0.88, 1.92%)) and base of tongue cancers in males (3.02% (95% CI: 2.27, 3.78%)) and base of tongue cancer in females (3.45% (95% CI: 2.21, 4.70%)). There was a significant decrease in comparison cancers in men (1.69% (95% CI: 1.96, 1.42%)), but not in females. Conclusion: Potentially HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer in Australia is increasing; the impact of HPV vaccination on these cancers should be monitored. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Wand H.,National Center in Epidemiology and Clinical Research | Whitaker C.,HIV prevention Research Unit | Ramjee G.,HIV prevention Research Unit
International Journal of Health Geographics | Year: 2011

Background: The severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa varies between and within provinces, with differences noted even at the suburban scale. We investigated the geographical variability of HIV infection in rural areas of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.Method: We used geoadditive models to assess nonlinear geographical variation in HIV prevalence while simultaneously controlling for important demographic and sexual risk factors. A total of 3,469 women who were screened for a Phase-III randomized trial were included in the current analysis.Results: We found significant spatial patterns that could not be explained by demographic and sexual risk behaviors. In particular, the epidemic was determined to be much worse 44 km south of Durban after controlling for all demographic and sexual risk behaviors.Conclusion: The study revealed significant geographic variability in HIV infection in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. © 2011 Wand et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Merrall E.L.C.,MRC Biostatistics Unit | Kariminia A.,National Center in Epidemiology and Clinical Research | Binswanger I.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Binswanger I.A.,Denver Health Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2010

Aims The transition from prison back into the community is particularly hazardous for drug-using offenders whose tolerance for heroin has been reduced by imprisonment. Studies have indicated an increased risk of drug-related death soon after release from prison, particularly in the first 2 weeks. For precise, up-to-date understanding of these risks, a meta-analysis was conducted on the risk of drug-related death in weeks 1 + 2 and 3 + 4 compared with later 2-week periods in the first 12 weeks after release from prison. Methods English-language studies were identified that followed up adult prisoners for mortality from time of index release for at least 12 weeks. Six studies from six prison systems met the inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted independently. Results These studies contributed a total of 69 093 person-years and 1033 deaths in the first 12 weeks after release, of which 612 were drug-related. A three- to eightfold increased risk of drug-related death was found when comparing weeks 1 + 2 with weeks 3-12, with notable heterogeneity between countries: United Kingdom, 7.5 (95% CI: 5.7-9.9); Australia, 4.0 (95% CI: 3.4-4.8); Washington State, USA, 8.4 (95% CI: 5.0-14.2) and New Mexico State, USA, 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3-7.1). Comparing weeks 3 + 4 with weeks 5-12, the pooled relative risk was: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.2). Conclusions These findings confirm that there is an increased risk of drug-related death during the first 2 weeks after release from prison and that the risk remains elevated up to at least the fourth week. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Worm S.W.,Copenhagen University | Weber R.,University of Zurich | El-Sadr W.,Columbia University | Dabis F.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. The risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been assessed in 13 anti-HIV drugs in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Methods. Poisson regression models were adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, cohort, calendar year, and use of other antiretroviral drugs and assessed the association between MI risk and cumulative (per year) or recent (current or in the past 6 months) use of antiretroviral drugs, with >30,000 person-years of exposure. Results. Over 178,835 person-years, 580 patients developed MI. There were no associations between use of tenofovir, zalcitabine, zidovudine, stavudine, or lamivudine and MI risk. Recent exposure to abacavir or didanosine was associated with an increased risk of MI. No association was found between MI risk and cumulative exposure to nevirapine, efavirenz, nelfinavir, or saquinavir. Cumulative exposure to indinavir and lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with an increased risk of MI (relative rate [RR] per year, 1.12 and 1.13, respectively). These increased risks were attenuated slightly (RR per year, 1.08 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.02-1.14] and 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01-1.17], respectively) after adjustment for lipids but were not altered further after adjustment for other metabolic parameters. Conclusions. Of the drugs considered, only indinavir, lopinavir-ritonavir, didanosine, and abacavir were associated with a significantly increased risk of MI. As with any observational study, our findings must be interpreted with caution (given the potential for confounding) and in the context of the benefits that these drugs provide. © 2009 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Pedrana A.E.,Burnet Institute | Pedrana A.E.,Monash University | Hellard M.E.,Burnet Institute | Hellard M.E.,Monash University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Undiagnosed HIV infections contribute disproportionately to the HIV epidemic. We recruited 639 gay men attending social venues, who completed a cross-sectional survey with oral fluid collection for HIV testing in 2008. We calculated HIV and undiagnosed HIV prevalence and used χ 2 tests and logistic regression to examine associations between participant characteristics and HIV status. Among 639 men, 61 (9.5%, 95% confidence interval: 7.4% to 12.1%) tested HIV positive, of which 19 (31.1%, 95%confidence interval: 19.9% to 44.3%) were classified as undiagnosed HIV positive. Almost a third of HIV-positive men were unaware of their HIV status, and of these men, a large proportion engaged in high-risk behaviors.

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