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Wylie B.J.,Boston University | Wylie B.J.,Harvard University | Hashmi A.H.,Boston University | Singh N.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Station | And 14 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: Malaria in pregnancy in India, as elsewhere, is responsible for maternal anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm birth. It is not known whether prevention and treatment strategies for malaria in pregnancy (case management, insecticide-treated bednets, intermittent preventive therapy) are widely utilized in India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2006-2008 in two states of India, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, at 7 facilities representing a range of rural and urban populations and areas of more versus less stable malaria transmission. 280 antenatal visits (40/site) were observed by study personnel coupled with exit interviews of pregnant women to assess emphasis upon, availability and utilization of malaria prevention practices by health workers and pregnant women. The facilities were assessed for the availability of antimalarials, lab supplies and bednets. Results: All participating facilities were equipped to perform malaria blood smears; none used rapid diagnostic tests. Chloroquine, endorsed for chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy by the government at the time of the study, was stocked regularly at all facilities although the quantity stocked varied. Availability of alternative antimalarials for use in pregnancy was less consistent. In Jharkhand, no health worker recommended bednet use during the antenatal visit yet over 90% of pregnant women had bednets in their household. In Chhattisgarh, bednets were available at all facilities but only 14.4% of health workers recommended their use. 40% of the pregnant women interviewed had bednets in their household. Only 1.4% of all households owned an insecticide-treated bednet; yet 40% of all women reported their households had been sprayed with insecticide. Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine was prescribed in only 2 (0.7%) and intermittent preventive therapy prescribed in only one (0.4%) of the 280 observed visits. Conclusions: A disconnect remains between routine antenatal practices in India and known strategies to prevent and treat malaria in pregnancy. Prevention strategies, in particular the use of insecticide-treated bednets, are underutilized. Gaps highlighted by this study combined with recent estimates of the prevalence of malaria during pregnancy in these areas should be used to revise governmental policy and target increased educational efforts among health care workers and pregnant women. © 2010 Wylie et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Mixson-Hayden T.,National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases | Mixson-Hayden T.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | Lucchi N.W.,National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases | Lucchi N.W.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2010

Background. One of the most commonly used molecular test for malaria diagnosis is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene. Published diagnostic assays based on the 18S gene include the "gold standard" nested assay, semi-nested multiplex assay, and one tube multiplex assay. To our knowledge, no one has reported whether the two multiplex methods are better at detecting mixed Plasmodium infections compared to the nested assay using known quantities of DNA in experimentally mixed cocktails. Findings. Here we evaluated three PCR assays (nested, semi-nested multiplex, and one-tube multiplex) for the simultaneous detection of human malaria parasites using experimentally mixed cocktails of known quantities of laboratory derived DNA. All three assays detected individual species with high sensitivity and specificity when DNA was from any one single species; however, experimentally mixed DNA cocktails with all four species present were correctly identified most consistently with the nested method. The other two methods failed to consistently identify all four species correctly, especially at lower concentrations of DNA -subclinical levels of malaria (DNA equivalent to or less than 10 parasites per microliter). Conclusions. The nested PCR method remains the method of choice for the detection of mixed malaria infections and especially of sub-clinical infections. Further optimization and/or new molecular gene targets may improve the success rate of detecting multiple parasite species simultaneously using traditional PCR assays. © 2010 Udhayakumar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Vinayak S.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | Vinayak S.,National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases | Alam T.,National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases | Mixson-Hayden T.,National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases | And 12 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s) of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated), a large proportion of the isolates (19.3%) contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each of these regions. Source

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