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Khurelbaatar N.,Mongolian Association for Infectious Diseases Researchers | Krueger W.S.,University of Florida | Heil G.L.,University of Florida | Darmaa B.,National Influenza Center | And 5 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2013

In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2·1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population-based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine influenza virus strains. Seroreactivity was sparse among participants suggesting little human risk of zoonotic influenza infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Khurelbaatar N.,Mongolian Association for Infectious Diseases Researchers | Krueger W.S.,University of Florida | Heil G.L.,University of Florida | Darmaa B.,National Influenza Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1:10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1:80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective study of Mongolians with animal exposures. © 2014 Khurelbaatar et al.

Karnath C.,University of Leipzig | Obiegala A.,University of Leipzig | Speck S.,University of Leipzig | Essbauer S.,University of Federal Defense Munich | And 8 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2016

Information about the prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Babesia spp. is still rare in Mongolia. We tested 275 Ixodes persulcatus ticks for A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. and 125 Dermacentor nuttalli ticks especially for Babesia spp. using different PCR methods. Ticks were collected from three provinces (Selenge, Arkhangai, Khentii) in Mongolia. DNA of A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. were found with a prevalence of 6.2%, 1.5% and 3.3% in each case in I. persulcatus ticks. This is the first time Cand. N. mikurensis was found in ticks from Mongolia. Sequence analysis of Babesia spp.-positive amplicons showed exclusively B. venatorum, which had also not been mentioned in Mongolia before. On the contrary, all D. nuttalli ticks tested negatively for Babesia spp. This study demonstrates that all three zoonotic pathogens are present in I. persulcatus ticks in Mongolia, and justify the need for further investigations of a more detailed genetic characterization of these pathogens. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

Batsukh Z.,Government Implementation Agency for Veterinary and Animal Breeding | Tsolmon B.,Government Implementation Agency for Veterinary and Animal Breeding | Otgonbaatar D.,National Center for Zoonotic Diseases | Undraa B.,National Center for Infectious Diseases with Natural Foci | And 2 more authors.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2013

The Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases (APSED) requires collaboration, consensus, and partnership across all the different actors and sectors involved in different aspects of emerging disease. Guided by APSED, Mongolia has established a functional coordination mechanism between the animal and human health sectors. Surveillance, information exchange and risk assessment, risk reduction, and coordinated response capacity and collaborative research have been identified as the four pillars of the zoonoses framework. Intersectoral collaboration has been clearly shown to be a crucial tool in the prevention and control of emerging zoonotic diseases. A "One Health" strategy has been implemented under the concept of 'Healthy animal-Healthy food-Healthy people'. An intersectoral coordination mechanismestablished between the veterinary and public health sectors has expanded its function to incorporate more work on food safety, emergency management, and effects of climate change on zoonotic diseases. Its membership includes the human health sector, the veterinary sector, the national emergency management agency, the environment sector, emergency management and inspection authorities, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The main outputs of the coordination mechanism have been strengthened surveillance and response activities and laboratory capacities. The coordination mechanism has also strengthened the surveillance and response capacity of neglected zoonotic diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and tick-borne diseases. Through regular meetings and brainstorming sessions, both sectors have developed joint operational plans, a long-term risk reduction plan 2011-2015, initiated a prioritization exercise and risk assessment for 29 zoonotic diseases, and reviewed and revised standards, procedures, and communication strategies. In 2011, a list of experts onmajor zoonoses were identified fromdifferent sectors and formed into a taskforce to identify the focal points for rabies, brucellosis, and vector-borne diseases.As a result, disease control strategies are nowlinked to scientific research and epidemiological expertise. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sharshov K.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Sivay M.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Liu D.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Pantin-Jackwood M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

Double reassortant H13N8 influenza A virus was isolated from gull in Mongolia. The basic virological characteristics were studied. Complete genome sequence analysis indicated the complicated evolutionary history. The PA gene belongs to classical Avian-like lineage and more likely originated from non-gull avian virus pool. Data confirm the state of extensive geographic mosaicism in AIV from gulls in the Northern Hemisphere. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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