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Boevink P.C.,James Hutton Institute | Wang X.,James Hutton Institute | Wang X.,University of Dundee | Wang X.,Academy of Agricultural science | And 12 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c-1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease.

Kong Q.,National Center for Vegetable Improvement | Xiang C.,National Center for Vegetable Improvement | Yang J.,National Center for Vegetable Improvement | Yu Z.,National Center for Vegetable Improvement
Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

SSR markers derived from expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR) are valuable tools for genetic variation assessment because they potentially exhibit functional diversity. The genetic variations of 27 melon accessions, including 21 thin-skinned melon landraces which nearly represent all types of thin-skinned melon landraces originated in China, were analyzed with EST-SSR markers. Of the 22 EST-SSR markers employed, 19 EST-SSR detected polymorphism with 13 of which had putative functions. The number of alleles detected by EST-SSR ranged from 2 to 5 with the average of 3. The PIC value for each locus varied from 0.21 to 0.68 with the mean of 0.46. Cluster analysis by UPGMA partitioned the accessions into groups of thin-skinned melon and thick-skinned melon with high bootstrap value. In the thin-skinned group, the EST-SSR markers failed to discriminate the thin-skinned vegetable melon from the other thin-skinned melon accessions. © 2011 Korean Society for Horticultural Science.

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