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Li X.-X.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Li X.-X.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Zhou X.-N.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host's immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host's immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. © 2013 Li and Zhou; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Chen W.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention
The Journal of international medical research | Year: 2012

An outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) occurred in students attending Licai Training School, Gujiao City, China, in early 2011. The epidemic characteristics and possible contributory factors relating to the spread of this outbreak of PTB were studied in a field investigation and are reported here. Cases were detected by PTB symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing (TST), chest X-radiography, and examination of sputum smears and cultures for all students, school staff and close family contacts of patients with PTB. Of the 287 students attending the school, 45 (15.7%) were diagnosed with PTB and two (0.7%) had a positive smear. No PTB was found among staff and close family contacts. Prevalence was high in Science Class 27 and the two floors of the dormitory building where the smear-positive TB patients studied and lived. The frequency of strong TST positivity was also high in Science Class 27 and among close contacts living in the same dormitories as the PTB patients. Several avoidable factors likely to have enhanced disease transmission were identified and several recommendations are made to reduce the risk of future TB outbreaks in schools. Source


Zhang D.,Chongqing Medical University | Wang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Lu J.,Capital Medical University | Pang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

The combination of β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors has been shown to have potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. In order to identify the most potent β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination against MDR-TB, we selected nine β-lactams and three β-lactamase inhibitors, which belong to different subgroups. A total of 121 MDR-TB strains were included in this study. Out of the β-lactams used herein, biapenem was the most effective against MDR-TB and had an MIC50 value of 8 μg/ml. However, after the addition of clavulanate or sulbactam, meropenem exhibited the most potent anti-MDR-TB activity with an MIC50 value of 4 μg/ml. For meropenem, 76 (62.8%), 41 (33.9%), and 22 (18.2%) of the 121 MDR-TB strains were subjected to a synergistic effect when the drug was combined with sulbactam, tazobactam, or clavulanate, respectively. Further statistical analysis revealed that significantly more strains experienced a synergistic effect when exposed to the combination of meropenem with sulbactam than when exposed to meropenem in combination with tazobactam or clavulanate, respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, a total of 10.7% (13/121) of isolates harbored mutations in the blaC gene, with two different nucleotide substitutions: AGT333AGG and ATC786ATT. For the strains with a Ser111Arg substitution in BlaC, a better synergistic effect was observed in the meropenem-clavulanate and in the amoxicillin-clavulanate combinations than that in a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) group. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the combination of meropenem and sulbactam shows the most potent activity against MDR-TB isolates. In addition, the Ser111Arg substitution of BlaC may be associated with an increased susceptibility of MDR-TB isolates to meropenem and amoxicillin in the presence of clavulanate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Zhang Z.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Zhang Z.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Wang Y.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Pang Y.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

We compared the efficiencies of different drug susceptibility testing methods in detecting rifampin (RIF) heteroresistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data revealed that the broth dilution method found more resistance than MGIT did (P = 0.046) for the low-resistance group. Similarly, the broth dilution method was more sensitive in detecting RIF heteroresistance in subpopulations with low growth rates than was MGIT (P = 0.033). In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the broth dilution method was more sensitive than MGIT in detecting RIF heteroresistance. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Zhang Z.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Wang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Pang Y.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Pang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Kam K.M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

We evaluated the correlation of phenotypic ethambutol (EMB) susceptibility as determined by two drug susceptibility methods with embB mutations in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The concordance rate for EMB resistance between broth dilution method and sequencing results (83.6%) was significantly higher than between the proportion method and sequencing results (61.7%) (P=0.004). Of the embB mutants, 75.4% (46/61) possessed a mutation at embB306. Our results demonstrated that ethambutol resistance determined by broth dilution method reveals better correlation with embB mutations than the proportion method in MDR isolates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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