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Li X.-X.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Li X.-X.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Zhou X.-N.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Parasites and Vectors

Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host's immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host's immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. © 2013 Li and Zhou; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Chen W.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention
The Journal of international medical research

An outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) occurred in students attending Licai Training School, Gujiao City, China, in early 2011. The epidemic characteristics and possible contributory factors relating to the spread of this outbreak of PTB were studied in a field investigation and are reported here. Cases were detected by PTB symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing (TST), chest X-radiography, and examination of sputum smears and cultures for all students, school staff and close family contacts of patients with PTB. Of the 287 students attending the school, 45 (15.7%) were diagnosed with PTB and two (0.7%) had a positive smear. No PTB was found among staff and close family contacts. Prevalence was high in Science Class 27 and the two floors of the dormitory building where the smear-positive TB patients studied and lived. The frequency of strong TST positivity was also high in Science Class 27 and among close contacts living in the same dormitories as the PTB patients. Several avoidable factors likely to have enhanced disease transmission were identified and several recommendations are made to reduce the risk of future TB outbreaks in schools. Source

Zhang D.,Chongqing Medical University | Wang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Lu J.,Capital Medical University | Pang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The combination of β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors has been shown to have potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. In order to identify the most potent β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination against MDR-TB, we selected nine β-lactams and three β-lactamase inhibitors, which belong to different subgroups. A total of 121 MDR-TB strains were included in this study. Out of the β-lactams used herein, biapenem was the most effective against MDR-TB and had an MIC50 value of 8 μg/ml. However, after the addition of clavulanate or sulbactam, meropenem exhibited the most potent anti-MDR-TB activity with an MIC50 value of 4 μg/ml. For meropenem, 76 (62.8%), 41 (33.9%), and 22 (18.2%) of the 121 MDR-TB strains were subjected to a synergistic effect when the drug was combined with sulbactam, tazobactam, or clavulanate, respectively. Further statistical analysis revealed that significantly more strains experienced a synergistic effect when exposed to the combination of meropenem with sulbactam than when exposed to meropenem in combination with tazobactam or clavulanate, respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, a total of 10.7% (13/121) of isolates harbored mutations in the blaC gene, with two different nucleotide substitutions: AGT333AGG and ATC786ATT. For the strains with a Ser111Arg substitution in BlaC, a better synergistic effect was observed in the meropenem-clavulanate and in the amoxicillin-clavulanate combinations than that in a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) group. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the combination of meropenem and sulbactam shows the most potent activity against MDR-TB isolates. In addition, the Ser111Arg substitution of BlaC may be associated with an increased susceptibility of MDR-TB isolates to meropenem and amoxicillin in the presence of clavulanate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Pang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Wang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Song Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Rifampin (RIF) susceptibility is a key factor in determining the treatment effectiveness of the standardized treatment regimens. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both target gene mutation and the efflux pump play major roles in the resistance to antituberculosis drugs. By eliminating RIF-resistant strains with rpoB mutation, the choice of RIF-monoresistant strains may allow us to identify the RIF-specific efflux pump genes. This study explored the RIF monoresistance mechanism in M. tuberculosis. Data from DNA sequencing and MIC measurements revealed that specific mutations, including Ser531Leu and His526Asp in RpoB, show high-level drug resistance. Three-dimensional structure modeling provided further evidence that the affinity between RIF and RpoB mutants was in accordance with the drug resistance level of the corresponding isolates. Furthermore, transcriptionlevel analysis among the nonmutated isolates indicated that three efflux pumps (Rv0783, Rv2936, and Rv0933) might be involved in exporting RIF from the cell. Compared to 8 g/ml for wild-type Escherichia coli, the MICs for the transgenic E. coli strains with either Rv0783 or Rv2936 were 32 and 16 g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, our study indicated that several RpoB mutant types, including Ser531Leu and His526Asp, show high-level RIF resistance attributed to low affinity between RpoB mutant proteins and RIF. In addition, this work demonstrates that Rv2936 and Rv0783 may be responsible for low-level resistance to RIF by exporting RIF from cells. The predicted structure of RpoB and the newly identified efflux pumps in this study will provide a novel approach to design new drugs and develop novel diagnosis technologies. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Zhang Z.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Zhang Z.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | Lu J.,Capital Medical University | Wang Y.,National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

China is one of the countries with the highest burdens of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant tuberculosis (TB) globally. Nevertheless, knowledge about the prevalence and molecular characterization of FQ-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from this region remains scant. In this study, 138 M. tuberculosis isolates determined by the agar proportion susceptibility method to be resistant to ofloxacin (OFX) were enrolled from a national drug resistance survey of China. All these strains were tested for susceptibility to ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and sparfloxacin using liquid Middlebrook 7H9 medium. The entire gyrA and gyrB genes conferring FQ resistance were sequenced, and spoligotyping was performed to distinguish different genotypes. Overall, the prevalence of resistance in China was highest for ofloxacin (3.76%), intermediate for levofloxacin (3.18%) and moxifloxacin (3.12%), and lowest for sparfloxacin (1.91%) and gatifloxacin (1.33%). Mutations in the gyrA gene were observed in 89 (64.5%) out of the 138 OFX-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Positions 94 and 90 were the most frequent sites of mutation conferring FQ resistance on these strains, accounting for high-level FQ resistance. Furthermore, the Beijing genotype showed no association with high-level FQ resistance or distribution in hot spots in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. Our findings provide essential implications for the feasibility of genotypic tests relying on detection of mutations in the QRDR of gyrA and the shorter first-line treatment regimens based on FQs in China. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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