National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking

Warsaw, Poland

National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking

Warsaw, Poland
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Jastrzebska A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Kaminski A.,Medical University of Warsaw | Kaminski A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Grazka E.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | And 6 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2014

Ionizing radiation has been found to induce stable defects in the crystalline lattice of bone mineral hydroxyapatite, defined as CO2 - radical ions possessing spins. The purpose of our study was to evaluate CO2 - radical ions induced in non-defatted or defatted human compact bone by gamma radiation (G) and accelerated electron beam (EB), applied with two doses at different temperatures. Moreover, the potential effect of free radical ion formation on mechanical parameters of compact bone, tested under compression in the previous studies, was evaluated. Bone rings from femoral shafts of six male donors (age 51 ± 3 years) were collected and assigned to sixteen experimental groups according to different processing methods (non-defatted or defatted), G and EB irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy), and irradiation temperature [ambient temperature (AT) or dry ice (DI)]. Untreated group served as control. Following grinding under LN2 and lyophilization, CO2 - radical ions in bone powder were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. We have found that irradiation of bone with G and EB induces formation of enormous amounts of CO2 - radical ions, absent from native tissue. Free radical ion formation was dose-dependent when irradiation was performed at AT, and significantly lower in EB as compared to G-irradiated groups. In contrast, no marked effect of dose was observed when deep-frozen (DI) bone samples were irradiated with G or EB, and free radical ion numbers seemed to be slightly higher in EB-irradiated groups. Irradiation at AT induced much higher quantities of CO2 - radical ions then on DI. That effect was more pronounced in G-irradiated bone specimens, probably due to longer exposure time. Similarly, bone defatting protective effect on free radical ion formation was found only in groups irradiated for several hours with gamma radiation at ambient temperature. Ambient irradiation temperature together with exposure time seem to be key parameters promoting CO2 - radical ion formation in bone mineral and may mask the opposite effect of defatting and the possible effect of irradiation type. Significant weak negative correlations between CO2 - radical ion number and some mechanical properties of compact bone rings (Young's modulus and ultimate stress) were found. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz I.A.,Medical University of Warsaw | Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz I.A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Olender E.,Medical University of Warsaw | Olender E.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | And 2 more authors.
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2016

Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation and organ transplantation are well-established treatments for different conditions. Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a major complication in both methods. There has been a rapid increase in the application of nonhematopoietic somatic cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells in GvHD experimental therapy. According to current European Union (EU) law, human cells intended for human application can be considered either as cell grafts or as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs). Objective, Materials and Methods The aim of the paper is an attempt to answer, based on GvHD experimental treatment data as well as existing EU and Polish law, whether cells cease to be cells (cell grafts) and becomes drugs (ATMPs); if yes, when; and what are the consequences of such situation both for patients as well as for physicians engaged in the treatment process in Poland. Results and Discussion Data analysis confirmed the interest in the experimental GvHD cell therapy. In the vast majority of analyzed cases the in vitro culture step in the cell preparation protocols has been foreseen. Therefore, the answer to title question was unambiguous—expanded cells are recognized in EU as ATMPs. In borderline cases, a scientific recommendation by the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) can play an important auxiliary role; however, it is currently neither required by Polish law nor legally binding in Poland. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Olender E.,Medical University of Warsaw | Olender E.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz I.,Medical University of Warsaw | Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz I.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | And 2 more authors.
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2011

Background: Biostatic (nonvital) tissue allografts have been used for temporary replacement as well as to trigger, stimulate, and ensure space for the regeneration of a recipient's own tissues. Examples of biostatic allografts routinely used in clinic are bone, tendons, skin, and amniotic membrane. A characteristic feature of biostatic allografts is the lack of living cells. In the recipient's body, biostatic allografts function as scaffolds as well as sources of growth, differentiation, and chemotactic factors. After implantation, recipient cells migrate onto the graft, colonize it, and initiate synthesis of extracellular matrix, thereby regenerating the structure of the lost or damaged tissue. The allograft gradually degrades before being remodeled and substituted by the recipient's new tissue. However, this process is not always effective due to a lack of reaction by recipient cells. New concepts have proposed seeding recipient cells onto the allograft prior to implantation, that is, biostatic allografts that are revitalized ex vivo. The aim of this presentation was to review scientific publications to provide essential information on the revitalization of biostatic allografts, as a rising trend in tissue transplantology. Results: Biostatic allografts show the following advantages: they are human-derived, nontoxic, biocompatible, and, in some cases, already display the desired shape. The process of introducing cells into the biostatic graft is described as "revitalization." The cells used in the process are recipient autologous elements that are either differentiated or progenitor elements. Cells are seeded onto the graft directly after retrieval or after propagation in culture. Revitalized biostatic allografts can be used orthotopically for the regeneration of the same tissue they have been retrieved from or heterotopically wherein the graft retrieved from a different tissue is used as a carrier for cells typical for the tissue to be regenerated. Examples of orthotopic use include revitalized trachea, tissue-engineered blood vessels, urinary bladder wall, and revitalized trabecular bone cubes. Examples of heterotopic use include: amniotic membrane as a carrier of limbal stem cells to treat corneal defects, or for chondrocytes to treat articular cartilage defects. Various requirements set by law must be met by tissue banks performing cell seeding of grafts. In Europe, the requirements are described in directives: 2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC), and in the regulation 2007/1394/EC. Revitalization of biostatic allografts gives new, promising tools for creation of functional parts of organs; brings the methodology used in tissue banks closer to tissue engineering; places the enterprise in the mainstream of advanced biotechnology; allows the full potential of tissue allografts; and opens a new, large area for clinical and laboratory research. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Olender E.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Olender E.,Medical University of Warsaw | Palczynska A.,Medical University of Warsaw | Rykowski M.,Medical University of Warsaw | And 4 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2010

The idea of transplantation seems to be commonly identified by lay and professional people only with transplantation of vascularized organs like kidney or heart. The question arises whether there is any awareness of tissue transplantation among the public. A survey was therefore undertaken to assess awareness of and approaches to tissue donation and transplantation among selected social groups. A questionnaire on donation and transplantation issues was administered to respondents from the following groups: secondary school students, non-medical university students, medical university students, physicians. On the whole, 441 non-randomly sampled respondents were surveyed. The awareness of tissue transplantation is narrower than the awareness of organ transplantation. The support for tissue transplantation is weaker than for organ transplantation. This study shows that there is an acute need for education in the legal aspects of transplantation and © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Gut G.,Medical University of Warsaw | Gut G.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Marowska J.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Jastrzebska A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | And 4 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2015

To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215–219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not exclude their clinical application. However, biomechanical investigations constitute only the first step to evaluate the potential clinical usefulness of such allografts and further extensive in vivo studies are needed. © 2015 The Author(s)


Kaminski A.,Medical University of Warsaw | Kaminski A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Grazka E.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Jastrzebska A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | And 6 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2012

Accelerated electron beam (EB) irradiation has been a sufficient method used for sterilisation of human tissue grafts for many years in a number of tissue banks. Accelerated EB, in contrast to more often used gamma photons, is a form of ionizing radiation that is characterized by lower penetration, however it is more effective in producing ionisation and to reach the same level of sterility, the exposition time of irradiated product is shorter. There are several factors, including dose and temperature of irradiation, processing conditions, as well as source of irradiation that may influence mechanical properties of a bone graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect e-beam irradiation with doses of 25 or 35 kGy, performed on dry ice or at ambient temperature, on mechanical properties of non-defatted or defatted compact bone grafts. Left and right femurs from six male cadaveric donors, aged from 46 to 54 years, were transversely cut into slices of 10 mm height, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. Compact bone rings were assigned to the eight experimental groups according to the different processing method (defatted or non-defatted), as well as e-beam irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy) and temperature conditions of irradiation (ambient temperature or dry ice). Axial compression testing was performed with a material testing machine. Results obtained for elastic and plastic regions of stress-strain curves examined by univariate analysis are described. Based on multivariate analysis, including all groups, it was found that temperature of e-beam irradiation and defatting had no consistent significant effect on evaluated mechanical parameters of compact bone rings. In contrast, irradiation with both doses significantly decreased the ultimate strain and its derivative toughness, while not affecting the ultimate stress (bone strength). As no deterioration of mechanical properties was observed in the elastic region, the reduction of the energy absorption capacity of irradiated bone rings apparently resulted from changes generated by irradiation within the plastic strain region. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kaminski A.,Medical University of Warsaw | Kaminski A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Jastrzebska A.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | Grazka E.,National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking | And 6 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2012

The secondary sterilisation by irradiation reduces the risk of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts. Achieving sterility of bone tissue grafts compromises its biomechanical properties. There are several factors, including dose and temperature of irradiation, as well as processing conditions, that may influence mechanical properties of a bone graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation with doses of 25 or 35 kGy, performed on dry ice or at ambient temperature, on mechanical properties of non-defatted or defatted compact bone grafts. Left and right femurs from six male cadaveric donors aged from 46 to 54 years, were transversely cut into slices of 10 mm height, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. Compact bone rings were assigned to the eight experimental groups according to the different processing method (defatted or non-defatted), as well as gamma irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy) and temperature conditions of irradiation (ambient temperature or dry ice). Axial compression testing was performed with a material testing machine. Results obtained for elastic and plastic regions of stress-strain curves examined by univariate analysis are described. Based on multivariate analysis it was found that defatting of bone rings had no significant effect on any mechanical parameter studied, whereas irradiation with both doses decreased significantly the ultimate strain and its derivative toughness. The elastic limit and resilience were significantly increased by irradiation with the dose 25 kGy, but not 35 kGy, when the time of irradiation was longer. Additionally, irradiation at ambient temperature decreased maximum load, elastic limit, resilience, and ultimate stress. As strain in the elastic region was not affected, decreased elastic limit resulted in lower resilience. The opposite phenomenon was observed in the plastic region, where in spite of the lower ultimate stress, the toughness was increased due to the increase in the ultimate strain. The results of our study suggest that there may be an association between mechanical properties of bone tissue grafts and the damage process of collagen structure during gamma irradiation. This collagen damage in cortical bone allografts containing water does not depends on the temperature of irradiation or defatting during processing if dose of gamma irradiation does not exceed 35 kGy. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking and Medical University of Warsaw
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell and tissue banking | Year: 2016

To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not exclude their clinical application. However, biomechanical investigations constitute only the first step to evaluate the potential clinical usefulness of such allografts and further extensive in vivo studies are needed.


PubMed | National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell and tissue banking | Year: 2014

Ionizing radiation has been found to induce stable defects in the crystalline lattice of bone mineral hydroxyapatite, defined as CO(2) (-) radical ions possessing spins. The purpose of our study was to evaluate CO(2) (-) radical ions induced in non-defatted or defatted human compact bone by gamma radiation (G) and accelerated electron beam (EB), applied with two doses at different temperatures. Moreover, the potential effect of free radical ion formation on mechanical parameters of compact bone, tested under compression in the previous studies, was evaluated. Bone rings from femoral shafts of six male donors (age 51 3 years) were collected and assigned to sixteen experimental groups according to different processing methods (non-defatted or defatted), G and EB irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy), and irradiation temperature [ambient temperature (AT) or dry ice (DI)]. Untreated group served as control. Following grinding under LN2 and lyophilization, CO(2) (-) radical ions in bone powder were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. We have found that irradiation of bone with G and EB induces formation of enormous amounts of CO(2) (-) radical ions, absent from native tissue. Free radical ion formation was dose-dependent when irradiation was performed at AT, and significantly lower in EB as compared to G-irradiated groups. In contrast, no marked effect of dose was observed when deep-frozen (DI) bone samples were irradiated with G or EB, and free radical ion numbers seemed to be slightly higher in EB-irradiated groups. Irradiation at AT induced much higher quantities of CO(2) (-) radical ions then on DI. That effect was more pronounced in G-irradiated bone specimens, probably due to longer exposure time. Similarly, bone defatting protective effect on free radical ion formation was found only in groups irradiated for several hours with gamma radiation at ambient temperature. Ambient irradiation temperature together with exposure time seem to be key parameters promoting CO(2) (-) radical ion formation in bone mineral and may mask the opposite effect of defatting and the possible effect of irradiation type. Significant weak negative correlations between CO(2) (-) radical ion number and some mechanical properties of compact bone rings (Youngs modulus and ultimate stress) were found.


PubMed | National Center for Tissue and Cell Banking
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell and tissue banking | Year: 2011

The idea of transplantation seems to be commonly identified by lay and professional people only with transplantation of vascularized organs like kidney or heart. The question arises whether there is any awareness of tissue transplantation among the public. A survey was therefore undertaken to assess awareness of and approaches to tissue donation and transplantation among selected social groups. A questionnaire on donation and transplantation issues was administered to respondents from the following groups: secondary school students, non-medical university students, medical university students, physicians. On the whole, 441 non-randomly sampled respondents were surveyed. The awareness of tissue transplantation is narrower than the awareness of organ transplantation. The support for tissue transplantation is weaker than for organ transplantation. This study shows that there is an acute need for education in the legal aspects of transplantation and that ways of motivating healthcare professionals to promote transplantation should be developed.

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