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Dwyer C.,University College London | Parutis V.,National Center for Social Research
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2013

Within the wider context of interest in the relationships between faith and the state, this paper focuses on the case of state-funded faith schools in England and how opposition to them has been mobilised and negotiated. Discussion focuses specifically on the role of community cohesion policy - a policy adopted to combat social and ethnic division after 2001 - and the contested parameters of this policy when introduced to monitor schools. Analysis suggests that faith school providers were able to interpret the policy in ways that challenged government articulations and reworked dominant meanings, revealing the political and spatial instabilities of the policy. However, our analysis suggests that these challenges to state meanings were less successful in shaping mechanisms to monitor admissions practices in faith schools - producing some unanticipated entanglements of state and religious authority with implications for the shaping of communal religious life. These findings both add to the wider critical policy analysis of community cohesion policy and contribute to debates about the role of religion in the public sphere. © 2012 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). Source


Chakraborty A.,University College London | McManus S.,National Center for Social Research | Brugha T.S.,University of Leicester | Bebbington P.,University College London | King M.,University College London
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: There has been little research into the prevalence of mental health problems in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people in the UK with most work conducted in the USA. Aims: To relate the prevalence of mental disorder, self-harm and suicide attempts to sexual orientation in England, and to test whether psychiatric problems were associated with discrimination on grounds of sexuality. Method: The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403) was representative of the population living in private UK households. Standardised questions provided demographic information. Neurotic symptoms, common mental disorders, probable psychosis, suicidality, alcohol and drug dependence and service utilisation were assessed. In addition, detailed information was obtained about aspects of sexual identity and perceived discrimination on these grounds. Results: Self-reported identification as non-heterosexual (determined by both orientation and sexual partnership, separately) was associated with unhappiness, neurotic disorders overall, depressive episodes, generalised anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobic disorder, probable psychosis, suicidal thoughts and acts, self-harm and alcohol and drug dependence. Mental health-related general practitioner consultations and community care service use over the previous year were also elevated. In the non-heterosexual group, discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation predicted certain neurotic disorder outcomes, even after adjustment for potentially confounding demographic variables. Conclusions: This study corroborates international findings that people of non-heterosexual orientation report elevated levels of mental health problems and service usage, and it lends further support to the suggestion that perceived discrimination may act as a social stressor in the genesis of mental health problems in this population. Source


Reith G.,University of Glasgow | Dobbie F.,National Center for Social Research
Addiction Research and Theory | Year: 2011

This article reports findings from the first phase of a longitudinal, qualitative study based on a cohort of 50 gamblers. The overall study is designed to explore the development of 'gambling careers'. Within it, this first phase of analysis examines the ways that individuals begin gambling, focusing on the role of social relationships and environmental context in this process. Drawing on theories of social learning and cultural capital, we argue that gambling is a fundamentally social behaviour that is embedded in specific environmental and cultural settings. Our findings reveal the importance of social networks, such as family, friends and colleagues, as well as geographical-cultural environment, social class, age and gender, in the initiation of gambling behaviour. They also suggest that those who begin gambling at an early age within family networks are more likely to develop problems than those who begin later, amongst friends and colleagues. However, we caution against simplistic interpretations, as a variety of inter-dependent social factors interact in complex ways here. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Alexandri G.,National Center for Social Research
Urban Studies | Year: 2015

In gentrifying places the middle classes come into conflict with the pre-existing spatial and social structures, as they challenge the existing order in order to impose their sense of betterment. In times of crisis, spatial contests are confronted with fears which are related to broader feelings of anxiety that turn against the unwanted ‘other’. This paper drives attention to the feelings of fear that arise in the gentrifiers’ perceptions of quotidian life in times of high liquidity in an Athenian inner city neighbourhood. The way gentrification dynamics enmesh with urban fears may provide us with more insights into the conquest of space by the middle classes, thus broadening the scope of gentrification in the context of the current crisis. © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2014 Source


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 153.03K | Year: 2016

The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is one of the most important attempts to undertake cross-national survey research that currently exists. 46 countries currently participate, covering all five of inhabited continents across the world. Each year, member countries field an agreed module of 60 questions on a particular topic, usually as part of an existing random probability survey. The data from these studies, along with a set of prescribed socio-demographic background variables is then deposited in an agreed format with ISSP data archive. A wide range of different modules have been fielded since the project began in 1985, covering topics such as social inequality, religion and the role of government. Topics are chosen at an annual plenary meeting by attending members. They are revisited periodically, with a number having been covered three or four times. As a result, ISSP data can be used both to examine differences between countries at a particular point in time and to compare differences in trends over time. A combined dataset containing data for all countries is made publicly available to the research community approximately two years after data collection has taken place. ISSP data are widely used; worldwide, over 200 publications are recorded each year. In Britain, there have been over 500 publications using ISSP data since the programme began, close to 10% of the worldwide total. Since ISSP began, Britains participation has been facilitated by including the ISSP module on a self-completion supplement that forms part of the British Social Attitudes survey (BSA), an annual, high quality independent survey conducted by NatCen. This is a highly cost effective way of fielding the module, as only the marginal costs of asking the ISSP questions have to be covered. Until 2002, British participation was primarily funded through core funding given to the Centre for Research into Elections and Social Trends, an ESRC Research Centre. Since 2004 it has been funded as a research resource by the ESRC Resources Board, and this application proposes that this arrangement should continue for a further three years. ISSP will cover three topics during this period: role of government (2016), social networks (2017) and religion (2018): - The role of government module was previously fielded in 1985, 1990, 1996 and 2006. Its repetition will provide valuable data allowing us to track how views about issues such as extremism, surveillance and counter-terrorism have changed over time, at a time when many countries have experienced terror attacks or threats (and thus when we might anticipate attitude change) - The 2017 module on social networks was fielded in 1986 and 2004, and will include questions on support networks, a census of family and friendship relations, the use of social media in maintaining relationships, and whether relationships are positive or not. The module also looks at who should provide care and services for vulnerable groups at a time when an aging population is causing financial strain in many countries - The 2018 module on religion (asked 1991, 1998, 2008) will allow us to examine spirituality and well-being, the place of religion within state institutions, and the role of religion in conflict and extremism. This will provide valuable insights into how people follow and perceive religion during a period when it has been called on to justify acts of extremism and aggression A range of dissemination activities promoting awareness and use of ISSP data by social science researchers, policy-makers and media are proposed. These include: including at least one chapter a year based on ISSP data in the annual BSA report, which is freely available online and widely disseminated; developing a bespoke ISSP website including visualization of ISSP data; utilizing NatCens strong social media presence to raise awareness of the data; delivering presentations to relevant research and policy audiences.

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