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El Hachimi H.,Cadi Ayyad University | Youbi N.,Cadi Ayyad University | Youbi N.,National Center for Scientific and Technical Research | Youbi N.,University of Lisbon | And 14 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication

The morphology, internal architecture and emplacement mechanisms of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) lava flows of Argana Basin in Morocco are presented. The volcanic pile was produced by two volcanic pulses. The first, represented by the Tasguint Formation, corresponds to a succession of 3-13 individual flows created by 1-8 eruptions; the second, Alemzi Formation, is composed of 2-7 individual flows formed by 1-4 eruptions. These formations, geochemically distinct, are separated by thin silty or sandy horizons or by palaeosols. They include 'compound pahoehoe flows' and 'simple flows'. The first type is almost exclusive of the lower formation, while the second type dominates the upper formation. The lava flows show clear evidence of endogenous growth or 'inflation'. The characteristics of the volcanic pile suggest slow emplacement during sustained eruptive episodes and are compatible with a continental basaltic succession facies model. © The Geological Society of London 2011. Source

Dagdougui H.,University of Genoa | Ouammi A.,National Center for Scientific and Technical Research | Sacile R.,University of Genoa
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology

The optimal control of the power flows in a network of microgrids (MGs) is presented. The problem is solved using the mathematical formalization of the optimal control based on the Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP). The objective is to deliver an optimal control strategy for the minimization of the power flows among MGs, and to maintain the storage system operating around a given reference value. This study proposes an original formulation based on the PMP that may be viewed as a preliminary continuous time attempt to model and control the exchange of power in a network of MGs. Its main originality is the use and the exchange of information and forecast of energy production and consumption on the whole set of MGs, to improve the overall quality of the power management, and energy storage. A method based on the PMP is developed to solve the corresponding constrained optimal control problem in an almost exclusively analytical way and thus, to calculate the optimal control. To prove the viability of the proposed approach, an example has been solved for the case of four MGs collaborating in a network. © 1993-2012 IEEE. Source

Salhi Y.,Universite Ibn Tofail | Cherrouf S.,Universite Ibn Tofail | Cherkaoui M.,Universite Ibn Tofail | Abdelouahdi K.,National Center for Scientific and Technical Research
Applied Surface Science

The electrodeposition of Sn-Zn coating at ambient temperature was investigated. The bath consists of metal salts SnCl2·2H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O and sodium citrate (NaC6H5Na3O7·2H2O) as complexing agent. To prevent precipitation, the pH is fixed at 5. Reducing tin and zinc through Sncit2- and ZnHcit- complex respectively is confirmed by the presence of two cathodic peaks on the voltammogram. The kinetic of tin (II) reduction process is limited by the SnCit2- dissociation. The SEM and TEM observations have showed that the coating consists of a uniform Sn-Zn layer composed of fine grains on which tin aggregates grow up. XRD revealed peaks corresponding to the hexagonal Zn phase and the tetragonal β-Sn phase. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Ouammi A.,National Center for Scientific and Technical Research
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy

This paper attempts to contribute to the development of a new concept focused on a cooperative control scheme for a smart network of residential buildings (SNRB) and to demonstrate advantages of interconnections and coordination among a set of smart residential buildings (SRBs), by taking advantages of fluctuations of stochastic renewable sources and loads, and exploiting the operational flexibilities of thermal loads defined as the required hot water and desired buildings temperature. A comprehensive finite-horizon scheduling optimization problem is formulated to optimally control a SNRB using model predictive control (MPC) method, which integrates both forecasts and newly updated information. The cooperation is reached through a bidirectional communication infrastructure in the SNRB, where the master controller (MC) is available at the network level and in charge of coordinating and managing power in the SNRB. A MPC-based algorithm is used for the future scheduling of power exchanges, charge/discharge state of each energy storage device (ESD), the state of each micro-CHP and the charging state of each plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) available in the network. The MPC strategy is tested through case studies where the influences of both network topology and thermal loads on the operation of each SRB are analyzed via numerical results. © 2016 IEEE. Source

Ouammi A.,National Center for Scientific and Technical Research | Dagdougui H.,Ecole de Technologie Superieure of Montreal | Dessaint L.,Ecole de Technologie Superieure of Montreal | Sacile R.,University of Genoa
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid

In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) for the optimal power exchanges in a smart network of power microgrids (MGs) is presented. The main purpose is to present an innovative control strategy for a cluster of interconnected MGs to maximize the global benefits. A MPC-based algorithm is used to determine the scheduling of power exchanges among MGs, and the charge/discharge of each local storage system. The MPC algorithm requires information on power prices, power generation, and load forecasts. The MPC algorithm is tested through case studies with and without prediction errors on loads and renewable power production. The operation of single MGs is simulated to show the advantage of the proposed cooperative framework relative to the control of a single MG. The results demonstrate that the cooperation among MGs has significant advantages and benefits with respect to each single MG operation. © 2015 IEEE. Source

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