National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance

Beijing, China

National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance

Beijing, China

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Wang Q.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wang L.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Chen X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Rao K.M.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2011

Background: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in industrial and diverse consumer products. Animal studies indicate DEHP caused developmental, reproductive, and hepatic toxicities. However, human studies of the potential effects of DEHP are limited. Methods: The exposed site with a history of over 20 years of waste plastic recycling was located in Hunan Province, China. The reference site without known DEHP pollution source was about 50 km far away from the exposed site. In this study, 181 workers working in plastic waste recycling and 160 gender-age matched farmers were recruited. DEHP concentrations in water and cultivated soil samples, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei frequency in human capillary blood lymphocytes were analyzed. Results: Mean levels of DEHP were greater in environment at the recycling site than at reference site (industry wastewater for the exposed: 42.43 μg/l; well water: 14.20 vs. 0.79 μg/l, pond water: 135.68 vs. 0.37 μg/l, cultivated soil: 13.07 vs. 0.81 mg/kg, p < 0.05 for all). The workers had higher median levels of MDA (3.80 vs. 3.14 nmol/ml) and urinary 8-OHdG (340.37 vs. 268.18 μmol/mol creatinine) and decreased SOD activities (112.15 vs. 123.82 U/ml) than the reference group (p < 0.01 for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that the history of working in waste plastic recycling was an independent risk factor for the increased urinary 8-OHdG levels in the male workers (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The occupational DEHP exposure might contribute to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the male workers. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gao Q.,Shenyang University | Hu L.-W.,Shenyang University | Wang Y.,Shenyang University | Xu W.-Y.,HuZhou Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | And 4 more authors.
Skin Research and Technology | Year: 2011

Background/purpose: There are various non-invasive methods in skin morphology for assessing skin aging. The use of digital photography will make it easier and more convenient. In this study, we explored some skin texture parameters for evaluating skin aging using digital image processing. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-eight subjects who lived in Sanya, China, were involved. Individual sun exposure history and other factors influencing skin aging were collected by a questionnaire. Meanwhile, we took photos of their dorsal hands. Skin images were graded according to the Beagley-Gibson system. These skin images were also processed using image analysis software. Five skin texture parameters, Angle Num., Angle Max., Angle Diff., Distance and Grids, were produced in reference to the Beagley-Gibson system. Results: All texture parameters were significantly associated with the Beagley-Gibson score. Among the parameters, the distance between primary lines (Distance) and the value of angle formed by intersection textures (Angle Max., Angle Diff.) were positively associated with the Beagley-Gibson score. However, there was a negative correlation between the number of grids (Grids), the number of angle (Angle Num.) and the Beagley-Gibson score. These texture parameters were also correlated with factors influencing skin aging such as sun exposure, age, smoking, drinking and body mass index. In multivariate analysis, Grids and Distance were mainly affected by age. But Angle Max. and Angle Diff. were mainly affected by sun exposure. Conclusion: It seemed that the skin surface morphologic parameters presented in our study reflect skin aging changes to some extent and could be used to describe skin aging using digital image processing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Cohen A.,University of California at Berkeley | Tao Y.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Luo Q.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Zhong G.,Institute of Environmental Health and Endemic Disease Control | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background In rural China ∼607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate selfreported boiling data. Findings Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1%boiling with electric kettles, 20.3%boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001), followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001) and pots (-0.44, p<0.01). Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001), followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05) and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06). Conclusion As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the comparative advantage of boiling with electric kettles over pots. Our results suggest that electric kettles could be used to rapidly expand safe drinking water access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China. © 2015 Cohen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance, Institute of Environmental Health and Endemic Disease Control and University of California at Berkeley
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001), followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001) and pots (-0.44, p<0.01). Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001), followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05) and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06).As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the comparative advantage of boiling with electric kettles over pots. Our results suggest that electric kettles could be used to rapidly expand safe drinking water access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China.


Gao Q.,China Medical University at Heping | Dong G.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Hu L.,China Medical University at Heping | Shi S.,China Medical University at Heping | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2013

To determine the extent of and the contributing factors in skin ageing in the Chinese population, we collected data on 691 participants in northern (high latitude region) and southern China (low latitude region). The skin damage of the participants was graded according to a Beagley-Gibson scoring system based on photographs of the dorsal hand skin. The results revealed that age was an important contributing factor for skin damage. In both regions, the mean skin damage grade increased with age. The mean skin damage grade for the subjects in the low latitude region was significantly higher than that for those in the high latitude region in all of the age groups (P < 0.05). There was nearly a 10-year delay before the high latitude region subjects achieved the same degree of hand skin damage as the low latitude region subjects. Lifetime sun exposure was another independent factor that influenced the degree of skin damage. As age increased, the difference in the lifetime sun exposure between the two regions increased, but the difference in the extent of skin damage decreased. Skin damage on the hand may be more affected by sun exposure early in life. Furthermore, female sex and a higher body mass index (i.e., ≥24.0) were associated with a lower skin damage grade (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.54, 95% CI 0.40-0.73 and AOR 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.65, respectively). Compared with the subjects who lived at high latitude, those who lived at low latitude had an increased risk of a higher score (5.22; 95% CI, 3.68-7.42). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li H.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Zhang Q.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Li W.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Luo Q.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | And 2 more authors.
Water Policy | Year: 2015

A spatial autocorrelation analysis method was employed to process the spatial change of rural water supply over the past 19 years in the People's Republic of China. Statistical analyses indicate great achievements in rural water supply construction. Two main indices describing rural drinking water supply status, the Rural Popularization Rate of Tap Water and the Rural Popularization Rate of Water Improvement Beneficiaries, were found to be spatially auto-correlated. The Global Moran's I of the latter decreased generally, and local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the regional gap of rural water supply infrastructure is declining. The main factors affecting the spatial pattern of rural water supply were analyzed through the mean centre method. Our research shows that the spatial pattern of economic development and government investment has had a decisive role in the formation and evolution of rural water supply. © IWA Publishing 2015.


Cha Y.-E.,Capital Normal University | Cha Y.-E.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Li X.,Capital Normal University | Ma D.,Capital Normal University | Huo R.,Capital Normal University
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Two different crystal forms, [Ln4(Fpht)6(phen) 6(H2O)4]·nH2O (Ln = Eu 1, n = 14; Tb 2, n = 12) and [Ln(Fpht)(HFpht)(phen)(H2O)] (Ln = La 3, Eu 4, Tb 5) were obtained from the one-pot reaction of LnIII ions with 3-fluorophthalic acid (H2Fpht) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Complexes 1 and 2 are centrosymmetric tetranuclear molecules with two crystallographically different LnIII ion environments, [Ln(1)O 6N2] and [Ln(2)O4N4]. The complexes have a tridentate bridging Fpht ligand and a bidentate terminal Fpht ligand. Complexes 3-5 show 2D networks with [LnO7N2] polyhedra. There are two kinds of ligands, Fpht and HFpht, which adopt chelating-bridging/ monodentate and bidentate-bridging coordination modes, respectively. The La III complex shows ligand-centered fluorescence. EuIII and TbIII complexes display red 5D0→ 7F0-4 and green 5D4→ 7F6-2 characteristic luminescence, respectively. Intriguingly, white-light emission was produced when EuIII and TbIII were codoped into the 2D LaIII complex. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yu J.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu J.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance | Liang W.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang L.,Beijing Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2015

This study was performed to investigate the removal of phosphate from domestic wastewater using a modified steel slag as the adsorbent. The adsorption effects of alkalinity, salt, water, and thermal modification were investigated. The results showed that thermal activation at 800°C for 1hr was the optimum operation to improve the adsorption capacity. The adsorption process of the thermally modified slag was well described by the Elovich kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model reached 13.62mg/g. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the modified slag was cracked and that the texture became loose after heating. The surface area and pore volume did not change after thermal modification. In the treatment of domestic wastewater, the modified slag bed (35.5kg) removed phosphate effectively and operated for 158days until the effluent P rose above the limit concentration of 0.5mg/L. The phosphate fractionation method, which is often applied in soil research, was used to analyze the phosphate adsorption behavior in the slag bed. The analysis revealed that the total contents of various Ca-P forms accounted for 81.4%-91.1%, i.e., Ca10-P 50.6%-65.1%, Ca8-P 17.8%-25.0%, and Ca2-P 4.66%-9.20%. The forms of Al-P, Fe-P, and O-P accounted for only 8.9%-18.6%. The formation of Ca10-P precipitates was considered to be the main mechanism of phosphate removal in the thermally modified slag bed. © 2015.


Wei H.-C.,National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control | Year: 2011

With the decrease of parasitic ovum in night soil, the current Sanitary Standard for the Non-hazardous Treatment of Night Soil is not suitable for health situation of populations and actually sanitary state of night soil. The concept of green decontamination should be introduced into the design, construction, utilization and management. The feasibility of the current standard need to be improved. Considering the current sanitary state of night soil, decontamination, the impact to environment, actual constructing situations of sanitary toilet and its implementation, it is necessary to establish a new assessment system by adding environmental indicators and sensitive markers reflecting terminal contaminated state.


PubMed | National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control | Year: 2011

With the decrease of parasitic ovum in night soil, the current Sanitary Standard for the Non-hazardous Treatment of Night Soil is not suitable for health situation of populations and actually sanitary state of night soil. The concept of green decontamination should be introduced into the design, construction, utilization and management. The feasibility of the current standard need to be improved. Considering the current sanitary state of night soil, decontamination, the impact to environment, actual constructing situations of sanitary toilet and its implementation, it is necessary to establish a new assessment system by adding environmental indicators and sensitive markers reflecting terminal contaminated state.

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