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Toneto Novaes L.F.,University of Campinas | Martins Avila C.,University of Campinas | Pelizzaro-Rocha K.J.,University of Campinas | Vendramini-Costa D.B.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
ChemMedChem | Year: 2015

Natural products containing the α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone skeleton have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The natural product (-)-tarchonanthuslactone (1) possessing this privileged scaffold is a popular synthetic target, but its biological activity remains underexplored. Herein, the total syntheses of dihydropyran-2-ones modeled on the structure of 1 were undertaken. These compounds were obtained in overall yields of 17-21 % based on the Keck asymmetric allylation reaction and were evaluated in vitro against eight different cultured human tumor cell lines. We further conducted initial investigation into the mechanism of action of selected analogues. Dihydropyran-2-one 8 [(S,E)-(6-oxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate], a simplified analogue of (-)-tarchonanthuslactone (1) bearing an additional electrophilic site and a catechol system, was the most cytotoxic and selective compound against six of the eight cancer cell lines analyzed, including the pancreatic cancer cell line. Preliminary studies on the mechanism of action of compound 8 on pancreatic cancer demonstrated that apoptotic cell death takes place mediated by an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species. It appears as though compound 8, possessing two Michael acceptors and a catechol system, may be a promising scaffold for the selective killing of cancer cells, and thus, it deserves further investigation to determine its potential for cancer therapy. Fighting the big C: We describe the synthesis of a new family of analogues based on the scaffold of the natural product (-)-tarchonanthuslactone; these compounds were evaluated in vitro against tumor cell lines. We further conducted an initial investigation into the mechanism of action, including the inhibition of phosphatases and glutathione-S-transferase and the production of reactive oxygen species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Archangelo L.F.,University of Campinas | Greif P.A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Maucuer A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Manceau V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2013

The CATS protein (also known as FAM64A and RCS1) was first identified as a novel CALM (PICALM) interactor that influences the subcellular localization of the leukemogenic fusion protein CALM/AF10. CATS is highly expressed in cancer cell lines in a cell cycle dependent manner and is induced by mitogens. CATS is considered a marker for proliferation, known to control the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during the cell division. Using CATS as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified the Kinase Interacting Stathmin (KIS or UHMK1) protein as a CATS interacting partner. The interaction between CATS and KIS was confirmed by GST pull-down, co-immunopreciptation and co-localization experiments. Using kinase assay we showed that CATS is a substrate of KIS and mapped the phosphorylation site to CATS serine 131 (S131). Protein expression analysis revealed that KIS levels changed in a cell cycle-dependent manner and in the opposite direction to CATS levels. In a reporter gene assay KIS was able to enhance the transcriptional repressor activity of CATS, independent of CATS phophorylation at S131. Moreover, we showed that CATS and KIS antagonize the transactivation capacity of CALM/AF10.In summary, our results show that CATS interacts with and is a substrate for KIS, suggesting that KIS regulates CATS function. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Bernardes A.,University of Sao Paulo | Souza P.C.T.,University of Campinas | Muniz J.R.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Ricci C.G.,University of Campinas | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a superfamily of nuclear transcription factors. They are involved in mediating numerous physiological effects in humans, including glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARα ligands effectively treat dyslipidemia and have significant antiinflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. These effects and their ligand-dependent activity make nuclear receptors obvious targets for drug design. Here, we present the structure of the human PPARα in complex with WY14643, a member of fibrate class of drug, and a widely used PPAR activator. The crystal structure of this complex suggests that WY14643 induces activation of PPARα in an unusual bipartite mechanism involving conventional direct helix 12 stabilization and an alternative mode that involves a second ligand in the pocket. We present structural observations, molecular dynamics and activity assays that support the importance of the second site in WY14643 action. The unique binding mode of WY14643 reveals a new pattern of nuclear receptor ligand recognition and suggests a novel basis for ligand design, offering clues for improving the binding affinity and selectivity of ligand. We show that binding of WY14643 to PPARα was associated with antiinflammatory disease in a human corneal cell model, suggesting possible applications for PPARα ligands. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Carneiro V.M.T.,University of Campinas | Carneiro V.M.T.,Federal University of Vicosa | Trivella D.B.B.,National Center for Research in Energy and Material | Scorsato V.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

RK-682 (1) is a natural product known to selectively inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) and is used commercially as a positive control for phosphatase inhibition in in vitro assays. Protein phosphatases are involved in several human diseases including diabetes, cancer and inflammation, and are considered important targets for pharmaceutical development. Here we report the synthesis of racemic RK-682 (rac-1) and a focused set of compounds, including racemic analogues of 1, dihydropyranones and C-acylated Meldrum's acid derivatives, the later obtained in one synthetic step from commercially available starting material. We further characterized the behavior of some representative compounds in aqueous solution and evaluated their in vitro PTPase binding and inhibition. Our data reveal that rac-1 and some derivatives are able to form large aggregates in solution, in which the aggregation capacity is dependent on the acyl side chain size. However, compound aggregation per se is not able to promote PTPase inhibition. Our data disclose a novel family of PTPase inhibitors (C-acylated Meldrum's acid derivatives) and that rac-1 and derivatives with an exposed latent negatively charged substructure (e.g.: the tetronic acid core of 1) can bind to the PTPase binding site, as well promiscuously to protein surfaces. The combined capacity of compounds to bind to proteins together with their intrinsic capacity to aggregate in solution seems essential to promote enzyme aggregation and thus, its inhibition. We also observed that divalent cations, such as magnesium frequently used in enzyme buffer solutions, can deplete the inhibitory activity of rac-1, thus influencing the enzyme inhibition experiment. Overall, these data help to characterize the mechanism of PTPase inhibition by rac-1 and derivatives, revealing that enzyme inhibition is not solely dependent on compound binding to the PTPase catalytic site as generally accepted in the literature. In addition, our results point to promiscuous mechanisms that influence significantly the in vitro evaluation of enzyme inhibition by rac-1. Therefore, we recommend caution when using natural or synthetic RK-682 (1) as an internal control for evaluating PTPase inhibition and selectivity, since many events can modulate the apparent enzyme inhibition. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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