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Hamza N.B.,National Center for Research | Hamza N.B.,University of Bergen
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The species of Prosopis (Leguminosae) are trees or shrubs well adapted to grow in arid and semi arid regions. In Sudan Prosopis juliflora was introduced in 1917. Currently, it has become a noxious weed spreading aggressively in natural and managed habitats. The structure of genetic diversity within and among P. juliflora populations infesting three forests in the River Nile State were assessed by RAPD technique. A total of 56 bands were obtained from seven primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci over all populations was (55.36%). Kulhuda population had the highest percentage of polymorphic loci (64.29%) and the highest number of private alleles (3). Makabrab population had the lowest percentage of polymorphic loci (46.43%) and two private alleles. Mean expected heterozygosity was (0.218). High genetic differentiation was found among populations (PhiPT = 0.328, P = 0.001). There was a genetic variation of 33% among the populations and within them 67% (AMOVA, P < 0.001). The mean Shannon information index was (I = 0.319, SE = 0.023). UPGMA clustering did not precisely reflect the geographic position of the populations. The results show the current structure of the populations and the similarities between groups of populations, might be due to the recent introduction of the species into Sudan, the limited seed source, the extensive endozoic dispersal seed system and limited pollen dispersal. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Eltayeb N.M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Mukhtar M.M.,University of Khartoum | Mohamed A.B.,National Center for Research
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine and compare anti-schistosoma IgG, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) levels in the serum of patients and endemic controls and to investigate the epidemiological situation of Al-Hebaika village in the northern part of Gezira Agricultural Irrigation Scheme in 2005. Methods: During 2005 survey, serum were collected from 118 villagers. Sixty eight were parasitological positive (patients), and 50 were negative (endemic controls). Indirect ELISA was used to measure and compare the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) against Schistsoma mansoni (S. mansoni) soluble worm antigen (SWA) in the patients and endemic control groups from the village and compared with 20 healthy non endemic controls. Sandwich ELISA was also used to measure and compare IL-10 and IFN-γ in the serum of the selected groups. Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium was 20.0% and 0.9% in the first and the second surveys respectively, while the intensity of infection was the same in the two surveys 1.38 [geometric mean egg count (GMFC)]. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 68.5% and 15.4%, while the intensity of infection was 2.75 (GMEC) and 1.70 (GMEC) in the two surveys respectively. IgG reactivity against SWA showed no significant difference between Schistosoma positive patients and endemic controls. However, there were high significant differences between each of these two groups and the non endemic control group (P= 0,000). Schistosoma patients and exposed controls had significantly higher IL-10 concentration compared with non endemic controls. While endemic controls showed significantly higher IFN-γ concentration than patients (P = 0.000). Also there was very significant difference between IFN-γ levels of each of patients endemic controls and that of the non endemic controls (P = 0.003). Conclusions: The study concluded that IFN-γ has a role in the natural resistant to schistosoma mansoni infection. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme was greatly reduced. S. haematobium has disappeared from the area. © 2013 Hainan Medical College.

El-Amin H.K.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Hamza N.B.,National Center for Research | Abuali A.I.,Desertification Research Institute
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The study was carried out during two seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09, respectively. It was conducted to determine the effect of salinity stress of four concentration levels on six wheat cultivars under green house conditions and to assess their genetic diversity by using RAPD technique. Split-plot design with four replications was used. The results showed no significant differences between salinity treatments for most of the characters under study except for plant height, number of tillers plant -1 and dry shoot weight in the first season and at plant height, number of leaves plant -1, date to maturity, number of spike and grain weight/plant in second season. There were highly significant differences among varieties under salinity treatments for plant height and the number of tillers/plant in both seasons. No significant differences for interaction between varieties and salinity stress for both seasons. Six RAPD primers (OPA01, OPA03, OPA09, OPA13, OPA14 and OPA20) revealed polymorphism among the six wheat cultivars. RAPD markers were highly efficient and showed high variation among the six cultivars studied. The closer varieties genetically in the cluster behaved similarity in their response to salinity tolerance such as Candor and Debira which were genetically closely related as shown by the dendrogram and the second sisters Pohain and Wady Alnile. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Abuali A.I.,Desertification Research Institute | Abdelmula A.A.,University of Khartoum | Khalafall M.M.,National Center for Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in 27 Sudanese maize genotypes. Ten primers were used, resulting in the amplification of 59 fragments, of which 53 (89.33) were polymorphic. The maximum number of fragment bands (10) were produced by the primer A-1 with 100% polymorphism, while the minimum numbers of fragments (3) were produced by the primer OPA-20. Using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method, the genetic associations obtained showed three distinct heterotic groups. The high rate of polymorphism between genotypes revealed by RAPD markers indicated that the method is efficient to analyze genetic divergence and can be used to establish consistent heterotic groups between maize genotypes. ©2011 Academic Journals.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.61M | Year: 2014

The infectious diseases burden imposed by the parasites of Trypanosomatidae family represents a huge problem on peoples lives in countries where these diseases are endemic. Problems associated with existing drugs include inefficient delivery, insufficient efficacy, excessive toxicity and increasing resistance. New drugs are urgently needed now and in the foreseeable future. The New Medicine for Trypanosomatid Infections (NMTrypI) consortium uses a highly interdisciplinary approach to optimize pteridine, benzothiazole and miltefosine derivatives, as well as natural products against Trypanosomatids. The lead compounds target mechanisms that are associated with protozoa virulence and pathogenicity. The major objectives of this 3-year project are: i) development of drug leads which may be used in combination with a known or an investigational drugs, by using a common drug discovery platform established by experts in their respective fields, ii) development of pharmacodynamic biomarkers enabling the proteomic profiling of compound efficacy and early identification of drug resistance. NMTrypI addresses sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. The partners are SMEs (5) and academics (8) in Europe and in disease-endemic countries (Italy, Greece, Portugal, Sudan, and Brazil). The new platform enables high throughput screening of compound libraries, lead development, testing in relevant animal models, as well as toxicology and safety testing. NMTrypI will translate drug leads into drug candidacy through 6 scientific work packages (WPs1-6) supported by two transversal WPs dedicated to project dissemination and management. The major strength of the consortium lies in the complementary partnersexpertise and the integrated platform that will provide: - at least 1-2 innovative, less toxic and safer drug candidates for Trypanosomatid infections compared to existing ones, - early phase biomarkers for efficacy prediction (overall improved efficacy and safety)

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