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Salih A.A.M.,University of Khartoum | Hamid A.A.,National Center for Research
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science | Year: 2017

The present study was aimed to study the hydrological system in the arid areas of White Nile State, Sudan using remote sensing and GIS tools. Information on topography and soils had been extracted using ASTR, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), with 90m horizontal resolution and Sudan General Soil Map with scale 1:25,000 using digitized method to form the GIS database. Land use/cover information was derived from remotely sensed data of Land sat Thematic Mapper of the year 2014. The vegetation cover was estimated using the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI). One sub-basin was delineated using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the total acreage in different slope classes was estimated. These maps were used as input variables to derive a modified Soil Conservation Service (SCS) runoff curve number. The SCS runoff curve number model was applied to estimate the runoff depth for individual storm as (return period) event and summed up to derive the annual runoff potential for the sub-basin. All morphometric and hydrological characteristics for the elected sub-basin were extracted and illustrated and given in different tables, which include the stream numbers, the shape factor of the basin, the slope condition of the basin, the streams lengths, and the basin area and so on. The total surface water (runoff) in depth and volume potential for harvesting is 1.507mm (depth) and 309,078.09volm3. The results demonstrate the capability of GIS and its application for water harvesting planning over larger semiarid areas. © 2017 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences.


Mirghani M.,National Center for Research | Madane H.O.,Sudan Academy of Sciences
Proceedings - 2017 International Conference on Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering, ICCCCEE 2017 | Year: 2017

Digital audio compression is applied to reduce the data rate required to send audio stream through band limited communication networks, as well as reducing the size of data storage in case of recording audio streams. It is common to apply lossy audio compression algorithms in many applications, which provide higher compression at the expense of the fidelity. MPEG-1and2 Audio Layer III, or MP3, is encoding format for digital audio that uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a regular audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, and a standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on the majority of digital audio players. However, the quality of audio encoding depends on the phonemes of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. Most of speech models applied in audio compression relies on phonemes of English language, rather than those of Arabic language. Therefore, audio encoding of Holly Quran for recording on digital media is highly affected by these differences in the models used. Consequently, serious errors could be produced during the playback of Quran Kareem, which may change the meaning and quality of the output stream. The main objective of this paper is to discuss and evaluate encoding methods for speech in Arabic language accents, focusing on deterioration occurs in producing correct and clear Quran digital audio recording. © 2017 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.61M | Year: 2014

The infectious diseases burden imposed by the parasites of Trypanosomatidae family represents a huge problem on peoples lives in countries where these diseases are endemic. Problems associated with existing drugs include inefficient delivery, insufficient efficacy, excessive toxicity and increasing resistance. New drugs are urgently needed now and in the foreseeable future. The New Medicine for Trypanosomatid Infections (NMTrypI) consortium uses a highly interdisciplinary approach to optimize pteridine, benzothiazole and miltefosine derivatives, as well as natural products against Trypanosomatids. The lead compounds target mechanisms that are associated with protozoa virulence and pathogenicity. The major objectives of this 3-year project are: i) development of drug leads which may be used in combination with a known or an investigational drugs, by using a common drug discovery platform established by experts in their respective fields, ii) development of pharmacodynamic biomarkers enabling the proteomic profiling of compound efficacy and early identification of drug resistance. NMTrypI addresses sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. The partners are SMEs (5) and academics (8) in Europe and in disease-endemic countries (Italy, Greece, Portugal, Sudan, and Brazil). The new platform enables high throughput screening of compound libraries, lead development, testing in relevant animal models, as well as toxicology and safety testing. NMTrypI will translate drug leads into drug candidacy through 6 scientific work packages (WPs1-6) supported by two transversal WPs dedicated to project dissemination and management. The major strength of the consortium lies in the complementary partnersexpertise and the integrated platform that will provide: - at least 1-2 innovative, less toxic and safer drug candidates for Trypanosomatid infections compared to existing ones, - early phase biomarkers for efficacy prediction (overall improved efficacy and safety)


El-Amin H.K.A.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Hamza N.B.,National Center for Research
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is believed to be domesticated for the first time within the geographical range of Sudan, so, studying the genetic variation of sorghum genotypes collections attracts special interest. In this study, 17 sorghum accessions with important agronomic traits, representing four states in Sudan were assayed for polymorphism using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD). Ten primers out of 40 tested (A-1, B-20, C-20, D-18, OPE-04, UBC-101, UBC-103, UBC-127, UBC-155 and UBC-157) showed high polymorphism among the accessions. The results indicated 110 polymorphic bands out of 145 bands with percentage of polymorphic bands of 77.6%. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) result showed two major clusters, with a clear trend of grouping of each region. A cluster contained all accessions from eastern Sudan (Red Sea). However, accessions from north Sudan (River Nile), western Sudan (North Kordofan) and south Sudan (Blue Nile) were diverse in another cluster. Based on the results of this study RAPD technique proved to be useful to study genetic variation among the Sudanese sorghum accessions. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.


Hamza N.B.,National Center for Research | Hamza N.B.,University of Bergen
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The species of Prosopis (Leguminosae) are trees or shrubs well adapted to grow in arid and semi arid regions. In Sudan Prosopis juliflora was introduced in 1917. Currently, it has become a noxious weed spreading aggressively in natural and managed habitats. The structure of genetic diversity within and among P. juliflora populations infesting three forests in the River Nile State were assessed by RAPD technique. A total of 56 bands were obtained from seven primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci over all populations was (55.36%). Kulhuda population had the highest percentage of polymorphic loci (64.29%) and the highest number of private alleles (3). Makabrab population had the lowest percentage of polymorphic loci (46.43%) and two private alleles. Mean expected heterozygosity was (0.218). High genetic differentiation was found among populations (PhiPT = 0.328, P = 0.001). There was a genetic variation of 33% among the populations and within them 67% (AMOVA, P < 0.001). The mean Shannon information index was (I = 0.319, SE = 0.023). UPGMA clustering did not precisely reflect the geographic position of the populations. The results show the current structure of the populations and the similarities between groups of populations, might be due to the recent introduction of the species into Sudan, the limited seed source, the extensive endozoic dispersal seed system and limited pollen dispersal. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Eltayeb N.M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Mukhtar M.M.,University of Khartoum | Mohamed A.B.,National Center for Research
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine and compare anti-schistosoma IgG, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) levels in the serum of patients and endemic controls and to investigate the epidemiological situation of Al-Hebaika village in the northern part of Gezira Agricultural Irrigation Scheme in 2005. Methods: During 2005 survey, serum were collected from 118 villagers. Sixty eight were parasitological positive (patients), and 50 were negative (endemic controls). Indirect ELISA was used to measure and compare the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) against Schistsoma mansoni (S. mansoni) soluble worm antigen (SWA) in the patients and endemic control groups from the village and compared with 20 healthy non endemic controls. Sandwich ELISA was also used to measure and compare IL-10 and IFN-γ in the serum of the selected groups. Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium was 20.0% and 0.9% in the first and the second surveys respectively, while the intensity of infection was the same in the two surveys 1.38 [geometric mean egg count (GMFC)]. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 68.5% and 15.4%, while the intensity of infection was 2.75 (GMEC) and 1.70 (GMEC) in the two surveys respectively. IgG reactivity against SWA showed no significant difference between Schistosoma positive patients and endemic controls. However, there were high significant differences between each of these two groups and the non endemic control group (P= 0,000). Schistosoma patients and exposed controls had significantly higher IL-10 concentration compared with non endemic controls. While endemic controls showed significantly higher IFN-γ concentration than patients (P = 0.000). Also there was very significant difference between IFN-γ levels of each of patients endemic controls and that of the non endemic controls (P = 0.003). Conclusions: The study concluded that IFN-γ has a role in the natural resistant to schistosoma mansoni infection. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme was greatly reduced. S. haematobium has disappeared from the area. © 2013 Hainan Medical College.


Ghobrial Morgos R.A.,National Center for Research | Alhassan Alakad K.M.,University of Khartoum
2014 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition, IST-Africa 2014 | Year: 2014

The development in information technology has improved quality, safety, and efficiency of the health care. This study focused on automation of the primary sources' data to handle the right information timely and efficiently to decision-making. It aimed to identify the perceived attitudes experienced by Sudan Peritoneal Dialysis Program staff toward electronic files. The study reviewed the manual recorded treatment procedures of patients' files and designed database. Also random samples of the Sudan Peritoneal Dialysis Program staffs were surveyed to understand their perception to importance of proposed electronic health record. The results of the sampled workforce ensured the importance of information technology in the treatment and follow-up of patients as well as raised the efficiency and effectiveness of work. Finally it recommended the establishment of a national integrated electronic health to ensure and secure exchange of information as well as health care services enhance. © 2014 IIMC.


Abuali A.I.,Desertification Research Institute | Abdelmula A.A.,University of Khartoum | Khalafall M.M.,National Center for Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in 27 Sudanese maize genotypes. Ten primers were used, resulting in the amplification of 59 fragments, of which 53 (89.33) were polymorphic. The maximum number of fragment bands (10) were produced by the primer A-1 with 100% polymorphism, while the minimum numbers of fragments (3) were produced by the primer OPA-20. Using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method, the genetic associations obtained showed three distinct heterotic groups. The high rate of polymorphism between genotypes revealed by RAPD markers indicated that the method is efficient to analyze genetic divergence and can be used to establish consistent heterotic groups between maize genotypes. ©2011 Academic Journals.


Adam O.,National Center for Research | Makkawi T.,National Center for Research | Reber U.,University of Bonn | Kirberg H.,University of Bonn | Eis-Hubinger A.M.,University of Bonn
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection during pregnancy may have serious consequences like fetal anaemia, hydrops fetalis, and fetal loss. Since epidemiological data on B19V infection are generally lacking in Sudan, the current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of B19V in Sudanese pregnant women. Five hundred women, attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum state between November 2008 and March 2009, were enrolled and screened for B19V IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. The study revealed a B19V IgG seroprevalence of 61·4%, with one subject positive for IgM. B19V DNA was not detected by PCR in any of the tested individuals. B19V IgG seroprevalence was significantly correlated with multigravidity (P = 0·046). Our data showed that B19V infection is prevalent in Sudan and we recommend further studies in Sudanese women, particularly in those with complications and adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.


Osman M.G.,National Center for Research | Elhadi E.A.,Desertification Research Institute | Khalafalla M.M.,National Center for Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Thidiazuron (TDZ) and benzyl adenine (BA) alone or in different combinations, but not in hormone free-medium. The highest callusing index (5.3) was obtained on hypocotyls explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with NAA at 0.5 mg/l followed by an index of 5.2 obtained from the same explant by using 0.1 mg/l NAA in combination with BAP at 0.5 mg/l. However, for the cotyledon explants, the highest callusing index (4.7) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with NAA at either 2.0 or 3.0 mg/l. After 8 weeks of culture, organogenesis was observed only on the explants cultured on medium containing different concentrations of TDZ alone or in combination with BAP. The best shoot formation (93%) was obtained for cotyledon explant callus induced on MS medium containing TDZ in combination with BAP both at 0.5 mg/l. The highest number (6) of shoot per explant was obtained when cotyledon explant callus was sub cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l TDZ. Plain half strength of MS was found to be the best rooting medium, however, addition of IAA at 1.0 mg/l and IBA at 2.0 mg/l were found essential to induce highest number of roots (22.1 ± 0.9) and longer roots (11.0 ± 0.3 cm), respectively. This protocol would be useful to create somaclonal variation and utilize transgenic approaches for varietal improvement of tomato. © 2010 Academic Journals.

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