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Fu Y.,Peking University | Shi Y.-F.,Peking University | Yan K.,Peking University | Wang Y.-J.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Ultrasonography is non-invasive and can give useful clues in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy, However, differential diagnosis is difficult in some situations even combined with color Doppler imaging. The present study was conducted to evaluate the clinical value of real time elastography in patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy using a quantitative method. From May 2011 to February 2012, 39 enlarged lymph nodes from 39 patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy were assessed. All the patients were examined by both B-mode ultrasound, color Doppler flow imaging and elastography. The method of analyzing elasto-graphic data was the calculation of the 10 parametres ("mean", "sd", "area%", "com", "kur", "ske", "con", "ent", "idm", "asm") offered by the software integrated into the Hitachi system. The findings were then correlated with the definitive tissue diagnosis obtained by lymph node dissection or biopsy. Final histology revealed 10 cases of metastatic lymph nodes, 11 cases of lymphoma, 12 cases of tuberculosis and 6 cases of nonspecific lymphadenitis. The significant distinguishing features for conventional ultrasound were the maximum short diameter (p=0.007) and absent of echogenic hilum (p=0.0293). The diagnostic accuracy was 43.6% (17/39 cases) and there were 17 patients with equivocal diagnosis. For elastography, "mean" (p=0.003), "area%" (p=0.009), "kurt" (p=0.0291), "skew" (p=0.014) and "cont" (p=0.012) demonstrated significant differences between groups. With 9 of the 17 patients with previous equivocal diagnoses (52.9%) definite and correct diagnoses could be obtained. The diagnostic accuracy for conventional ultrasound combined elastography was 69.2% (27/39 cases). There were differences in the diagnostic sensitivity of the two methods (p=0.0224). Ultrasound combined with elastography demonstrated higher rates of conclusive and accurate diagnoses in patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy than conventional ultrasound. The quantitative program showed good correlation with the pathology of different lymph node diseases.

Liu J.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Xiao H.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Wu Y.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Liu D.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 6 more authors.
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2014

Human infections by the newly reassorted avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported for the first time in early 2013, and the virus was confirmed to be a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in poultry. Because continuously reported cases have been increasing since the summer of 2013, this novel virus poses a potential threat to public health in China and is attracting broad attention worldwide. In this review, we summarize and discuss the characteristics of the H7N9 virus revealed by the recent timely studies from the perspectives of epidemiology, host preference, clinical manifestations, immunopathogenesis, drug resistance, vaccine development, and burden of disease. This knowledge about the novel avian-origin H7N9 virus will provide a useful reference for clinical interventions of human infections and help to rapidly pave the way to develop an efficient and safe vaccine. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Qi X.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services | Meng Y.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services | Chen Q.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services | Ma J.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2014

Disease surveillance systems can be extremely valuable tools and a critical step in system implementation is data collection. In order to obtain quality data efficiently and align the public health business process, Epidemiologic Dynamic Data Collection platform (EDDC) was developed and applied in China. We describe the design of EDDC and assess the platform from six dimensions (service, system, information, use, users and benefit) under the DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model. Objective indicators were extracted from each dimension with the aim of describing the system in detail. The characteristics of functions, performances, usages and benefits of EDDC were reflected under the analysis framework. The limitations and future directions of EDDC are offered for wide use in public health data collection. © 2014 The authors and IOS Press.

Xi B.,Shandong University | Liang Y.,Jining Medical College | He T.,Guangdong Medical College | Reilly K.H.,Tulane University | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2012

The objective of this study is to examine the trends in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-27.49kg m -2), general obesity (BMI≥27.5kg m -2) and abdominal obesity (WC≥90cm for men and ≥80cm for women) among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2009. Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which was conducted from 1993 to 2009 and included a total of 52,621 Chinese adults. During the period of 1993-2009, mean BMI values increased by 1.6kg m -2 among men and 0.8kg m -2 among women; mean WC values increased by 7.0cm among men and 4.7cm among women. The prevalence of overweight increased from 8.0 to 17.1% among men (P<0.001) and from 10.7 to 14.4% among women (P<0.001); the prevalence of general obesity increased from 2.9 to 11.4% among men (P<0.001) and from 5.0 to 10.1% among women (P<0.001); the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased from 8.5 to 27.8% among men (P<0.001) and from 27.8 to 45.9% among women (P<0.001). Similar significant trends were observed in nearly all age groups and regions for both men and women. The prevalence of overweight, general obesity and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults has increased greatly during the past 17 years. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Xi B.,Shandong University | He D.,Shandong University | Hu Y.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services | Zhou D.,Linyi Peoples Hospital
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: We aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its influencing factors among the Chinese adults. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009, which was a cross-sectional and partially nationally representative study including a total of 7488 Chinese adults (age. ≥ 18. years). Results: The overall age-standardized prevalence estimates of the MS were 21.3% (95%confidence interval (CI): 20.4%-22.2%), 18.2% (95%CI: 17.3%-19.1%) and 10.5% (95%CI: 9.8%-11.2%) based on definitions of revised NCEP ATPIII, IDF and CDS criteria, respectively. Individuals who were women (compared to men: odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.16-1.61), 40. years or older (compared to less than 40. years old: OR = 2.82, 95%CI = 2.37-3.34 for 40-59. years; OR = 4.41, 95%CI = 3.68-5.29 for 60. years or older), overweight/obese (compared to normal weight: OR = 4.32, 95%CI = 3.77-4.95 for overweight; OR = 11.24, 95%CI = 9.53-13.26 for obese), and living in urban area (compared to living in rural area: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.12-1.43) were more likely to have a higher prevalence estimate of MS. In addition, frequency of alcohol consumption and cigarette intake were also found to be significantly associated with probability of MS. Conclusions: Our results suggest an urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, treatment and control of obesity and MS in China. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services and U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2015

An outbreak of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Guangdong Province, China in 2013 with the highest number of cases observed within the preceding ten years. DF cases were clustered in the Pearl River Delta economic zone (PRD) in Guangdong Province, which accounted for 99.6% of all cases in Guangdong province in 2013. The main vector in PRD was Aedes albopictus. We investigated the socioeconomic and environmental factors at the township level and explored how the independent variables jointly affect the DF epidemic in the PRD.Six factors associated with the incidence of DF were identified in this project, representing the urbanization, poverty, accessibility and vegetation, and were considered to be core contributors to the occurrence of DF from the perspective of the social economy and the environment. Analyses were performed with Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to fit parametric and non-parametric functions to the relationships between the response and predictors. We used a spline-smooth technique and plotted the predicted against the observed co-variable value. The distribution of DF cases was over-dispersed and fit the negative binomial function better. The effects of all six socioeconomic and environmental variables were found to be significant at the 0.001 level and the model explained 45.1% of the deviance by DF incidence. There was a higher risk of DF infection among people living at the prefectural boundary or in the urban areas than among those living in other areas in the PRD. The relative risk of living at the prefectural boundary was higher than that of living in the urban areas. The associations between the DF cases and population density, GDP per capita, road density, and NDVI were nonlinear. In general, higher road density or lower GDP per capita were considered to be consistent risk factors. Moreover, higher or lower values of population density and NDVI could result in an increase in DF cases.In this study, we presented an effect analysis of socioeconomic and environmental factors on DF occurrence at the smallest administrative unit (township level) for the first time in China. GAM was used to effectively detect the nonlinear impact of the predictors on the outcome. The results showed that the relative importance of different risk factors may vary across the PRD. This work improves our understanding of the differences and effects of socioeconomic and environmental factors on DF and supports effectively targeted prevention and control measures.

PubMed | Capital Medical University and National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services
Type: | Journal: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research | Year: 2015

This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function by reactive hyperemia index (RHI) in patients with depression, subjects recovering from depression, and subjects without a history of depression.Outpatients were recruited from a general hospital in China; 62 patients diagnosed with depression and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17) total scores 17 were enrolled as the depression group, 62 patients with a history of depression, discontinuation of antidepressants therapy at least 3 months ago, and HAMD17 7 were recruited as remission group, and 62 subjects without a history of depression served as the control group (HAMD17 7).The mean RHI was 1.93, 2.34, and 2.19 in depression, control, and remission groups, respectively, showing a significant difference among the 3 groups (P=0.0004). In addition, a marked difference in RHI was found between depression and control groups (P=0.0003) and between depression and remission groups (P=0.0270). However, there was no significant difference between remission and control groups (P=0.3363).There is a relationship between depression and endothelial dysfunction in outpatients from a general hospital in China. The improvement of depression is synchronous with the improvement of endothelial function.

PubMed | National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2014

This article introduced the application of trajectory model in epidemiological study on fat development in sixty teenagers. Results showed that fat developing trend on three trajectories-normal fat group, high fat group and very high fat group, with independently different developing trend. Trajectory model seemed a suitable model for fitting the longitudinal data with heterogeneity.

PubMed | Capital Medical University, National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services and Academy of Military Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2015

To understand the impact of meteorological factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD in China.Bayesian hierarchical model [Besag, York, and Mollie (BYM) model] was used to fit the data. The fitting effects of uncorrelated heterogeneity (UH) model, correlated heterogeneity (CH) model and spatial and temporal interaction model were compared and the best model was selected to analyze the meteorological factors influencing the incidence of HFMD.The UH+CH model with spatial and temporal interaction had best fitting effect (DIC=35,507.2). Rainfall (RR=1.0517, 95% CI: 1.0504-1.0525), average temperature (RR=1.0896, 95% CI: 1.078 1-1.1069), average relative humidity (RR=1.0890, 95% CI: 1.0821-1.0912), average air pressure (RR=1.0764, 95% CI: 1.0748-1.0779) and hours of sunshine (RR=1.0851, 95% CI: 1.0798-1.0875) were the meteorological factors influencing the incidence of HFMD.The incidence of HFMD had spatial and temporal clustering characteristics. The meteorological factors were closely related with the incidence of HFMD.

PubMed | CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research and National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Public health | Year: 2015

To explore the current situation and issues related to the development of the public health informatics (PHI) workforce in provincial and prefectural centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) in China, and to describe the corresponding strategies to address these issues for the future.National cross-sectional study.One thousand two hundred and eighty-one respondents were selected at random from provincial and prefectural CDCs. The survey used a self-administered, structured questionnaire with an online data collection tool that integrated data quality control and user management. The questionnaire was divided into seven main categories. Score percentage of satisfaction and proportion in each part were calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data, stratifying by country region, CDC level, job role and educational level.One hundred and sixty staff from provincial CDCs and 1121 staff from prefectural CDCs were selected. Only 7.4% (33/445) of prefectural CDCs were not involved in this survey, due to lack of PHI practitioners. CDC staff in the eastern region were predominantly aged 30-39 years (39.5%), which was much younger compared with the other regions (P=0.0012). Only 34 respondents (2.7%) had academic majors in both health and information technology. More staff had Masters degrees and a higher level of education (18.7%) in the eastern region compared with the other regions (P<0.0001). Staff in the eastern region in high-level positions and with a higher level of education were more knowledgeable about PHI strategy. Prefectural CDC staff were more satisfied with their work and training than provincial CDC staff. In the eastern region, 34.9% of staff were hired through competitive recruitment, and 57.8% of staff had received a job description with detailed information about their responsibilities, which was higher than in the other regions. Staff in the western region were more likely to leave if a better job became available (37.7%) compared with staff in the other regions (P=0.0116).This study found regional disparities in PHI workforce development, possibly related to disparities in overall regional development. Findings showed a severe shortage of staff with a background in PHI, and occupational development paths were clearly lacking. Based on this study of current workforce issues, a comprehensive strategy for PHI workforce development in China has been described.

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