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Wang C.,Capital Medical University | Fang L.,Academy of Military Medical Science | Cao W.,Academy of Military Medical Science | Zhang Y.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services | And 3 more authors.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of meteorological factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD in China.METHODS: Bayesian hierarchical model [Besag, York, and Mollie' (BYM) model] was used to fit the data. The fitting effects of uncorrelated heterogeneity (UH) model, correlated heterogeneity (CH) model and spatial and temporal interaction model were compared and the best model was selected to analyze the meteorological factors influencing the incidence of HFMD.RESULTS: The UH+CH model with spatial and temporal interaction had best fitting effect (DIC=35,507.2). Rainfall (RR=1.0517, 95% CI: 1.0504-1.0525), average temperature (RR=1.0896, 95% CI: 1.078 1-1.1069), average relative humidity (RR=1.0890, 95% CI: 1.0821-1.0912), average air pressure (RR=1.0764, 95% CI: 1.0748-1.0779) and hours of sunshine (RR=1.0851, 95% CI: 1.0798-1.0875) were the meteorological factors influencing the incidence of HFMD.CONCLUSION: The incidence of HFMD had spatial and temporal clustering characteristics. The meteorological factors were closely related with the incidence of HFMD.


Fu Y.,Peking University | Shi Y.-F.,Peking University | Yan K.,Peking University | Wang Y.-J.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Ultrasonography is non-invasive and can give useful clues in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy, However, differential diagnosis is difficult in some situations even combined with color Doppler imaging. The present study was conducted to evaluate the clinical value of real time elastography in patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy using a quantitative method. From May 2011 to February 2012, 39 enlarged lymph nodes from 39 patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy were assessed. All the patients were examined by both B-mode ultrasound, color Doppler flow imaging and elastography. The method of analyzing elasto-graphic data was the calculation of the 10 parametres ("mean", "sd", "area%", "com", "kur", "ske", "con", "ent", "idm", "asm") offered by the software integrated into the Hitachi system. The findings were then correlated with the definitive tissue diagnosis obtained by lymph node dissection or biopsy. Final histology revealed 10 cases of metastatic lymph nodes, 11 cases of lymphoma, 12 cases of tuberculosis and 6 cases of nonspecific lymphadenitis. The significant distinguishing features for conventional ultrasound were the maximum short diameter (p=0.007) and absent of echogenic hilum (p=0.0293). The diagnostic accuracy was 43.6% (17/39 cases) and there were 17 patients with equivocal diagnosis. For elastography, "mean" (p=0.003), "area%" (p=0.009), "kurt" (p=0.0291), "skew" (p=0.014) and "cont" (p=0.012) demonstrated significant differences between groups. With 9 of the 17 patients with previous equivocal diagnoses (52.9%) definite and correct diagnoses could be obtained. The diagnostic accuracy for conventional ultrasound combined elastography was 69.2% (27/39 cases). There were differences in the diagnostic sensitivity of the two methods (p=0.0224). Ultrasound combined with elastography demonstrated higher rates of conclusive and accurate diagnoses in patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy than conventional ultrasound. The quantitative program showed good correlation with the pathology of different lymph node diseases.


Xi B.,Shandong University | Liang Y.,Jining Medical College | He T.,Guangdong Medical College | Reilly K.H.,Tulane University | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2012

The objective of this study is to examine the trends in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-27.49kg m -2), general obesity (BMI≥27.5kg m -2) and abdominal obesity (WC≥90cm for men and ≥80cm for women) among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2009. Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which was conducted from 1993 to 2009 and included a total of 52,621 Chinese adults. During the period of 1993-2009, mean BMI values increased by 1.6kg m -2 among men and 0.8kg m -2 among women; mean WC values increased by 7.0cm among men and 4.7cm among women. The prevalence of overweight increased from 8.0 to 17.1% among men (P<0.001) and from 10.7 to 14.4% among women (P<0.001); the prevalence of general obesity increased from 2.9 to 11.4% among men (P<0.001) and from 5.0 to 10.1% among women (P<0.001); the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased from 8.5 to 27.8% among men (P<0.001) and from 27.8 to 45.9% among women (P<0.001). Similar significant trends were observed in nearly all age groups and regions for both men and women. The prevalence of overweight, general obesity and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults has increased greatly during the past 17 years. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Xi B.,Shandong University | He D.,Shandong University | Hu Y.,National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services | Zhou D.,Linyi Peoples Hospital
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: We aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its influencing factors among the Chinese adults. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009, which was a cross-sectional and partially nationally representative study including a total of 7488 Chinese adults (age. ≥ 18. years). Results: The overall age-standardized prevalence estimates of the MS were 21.3% (95%confidence interval (CI): 20.4%-22.2%), 18.2% (95%CI: 17.3%-19.1%) and 10.5% (95%CI: 9.8%-11.2%) based on definitions of revised NCEP ATPIII, IDF and CDS criteria, respectively. Individuals who were women (compared to men: odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.16-1.61), 40. years or older (compared to less than 40. years old: OR = 2.82, 95%CI = 2.37-3.34 for 40-59. years; OR = 4.41, 95%CI = 3.68-5.29 for 60. years or older), overweight/obese (compared to normal weight: OR = 4.32, 95%CI = 3.77-4.95 for overweight; OR = 11.24, 95%CI = 9.53-13.26 for obese), and living in urban area (compared to living in rural area: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.12-1.43) were more likely to have a higher prevalence estimate of MS. In addition, frequency of alcohol consumption and cigarette intake were also found to be significantly associated with probability of MS. Conclusions: Our results suggest an urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, treatment and control of obesity and MS in China. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Liu J.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Xiao H.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Wu Y.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Liu D.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 6 more authors.
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2014

Human infections by the newly reassorted avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported for the first time in early 2013, and the virus was confirmed to be a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in poultry. Because continuously reported cases have been increasing since the summer of 2013, this novel virus poses a potential threat to public health in China and is attracting broad attention worldwide. In this review, we summarize and discuss the characteristics of the H7N9 virus revealed by the recent timely studies from the perspectives of epidemiology, host preference, clinical manifestations, immunopathogenesis, drug resistance, vaccine development, and burden of disease. This knowledge about the novel avian-origin H7N9 virus will provide a useful reference for clinical interventions of human infections and help to rapidly pave the way to develop an efficient and safe vaccine. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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