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Corobov R.,National Center for Public Health | Sheridan S.,Kent State University | Overcenco A.,CRDF Project MOB 2928 CS 08 | Terinte N.,Box
Climate Research | Year: 2010

A trend analysis of surface temperature in Chisinau (Moldova) between 1887 and 2008 is presented. The observational data included monthly mean temperatures (Tmean) for the whole period, and monthly mean maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures since 1945. The following principal aspects were studied: (1) long-term temperature trends and changes in their patterns; (2) seasonal temperature extremes and their links with rising mean temperatures; and (3) an extremely hot summer of 2007 in Moldova as evidence of regional warming. In the last 3 decades, strong positive trends were observed in all temperature variables and, unlike previous periods (1945-1980), have become statistically significant for most seasons. Trends increased drastically: annual, winter and summer Tmean rose by about 0.62, 0.50 and 0.95°C per decade, respectively, in 1981-2008, compared with 0.035, 0.075 and 0.018°C per decade, respectively, in 1887-1980. Means of seasonal (except autumn) and annual temperatures in 1981-2008 differed from previous years at a 95% and higher confidence level; their variability, expressed in standard deviation (SD) values (σ), did not change significantly. In the last 3 decades there was practically no significant change in means, variability and distribution of Tmax in comparison with 1945-1980; however, Tmin changed significantly in all these statistics. The lack of significant changes in recent Tmax resulted in a relative stability of the frequency of temperature extremes, defined as the 90th and 95th percentiles of long-term distributions in winter and summer; some increase is observed only for absolute maxima. In 1981-2008 these thresholds for mean Tmin were exceeded 7 and 3 times, respectively, compared to the 1940s-1970s, when there were no such extreme events. The results strongly suggest that the observed warming in Chisinau was primarily caused by the Tmin increase. In summer 2007, monthly Tmean exceeded the corresponding values of the baseline (1961-1990) climate by 2.5-4.0 σ, the seasonal Tmean by 5 σ. © Inter-Research 2010. Source

Huang L.,University of Sydney | Crino M.,University of Sydney | Wu J.H.Y.,University of Sydney | Woodward M.,University of Sydney | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Background: Estimating equations based on spot urine samples have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-h urine collections for determining mean population salt intake. This review compares estimates of mean population salt intake based upon spot and 24-h urine samples. Methods: We systematically searched for all studies that reported estimates of daily salt intake based upon both spot and 24-h urine samples for the same population. The associations between the two were quantified and compared overall and in subsets of studies. Results: A total of 538 records were identified, 108 were assessed as full text and 29 were included. The included studies involved 10 414 participants from 34 countries and made 71 comparisons available for the primary analysis. Overall average population salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples was 9.3 g/day compared with 9.0 g/day estimated from the spot urine samples. Estimates based upon spot urine samples had excellent sensitivity (97%) and specificity (100%) at classifying mean population salt intake as above or below the World Health Organization maximum target of 5 g/day. Compared with the 24-h samples, estimates based upon spot urine overestimated intake at lower levels of consumption and underestimated intake at higher levels of consumption. Conclusions: Estimates of mean population salt intake based upon spot urine samples can provide countries with a good indication of mean population salt intake and whether action on salt consumption is required. © The Author 2016. Source

Grama M.,Ecology and Environmental Protection Section | Pinzaru I.,National Center for Public Health | Mirza C.,Ministry of Environment | Tertea V.,Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2013

In spite of the fact that Moldova has never produced pesticides, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs), over 50 years of overuse of pesticides left a damaging legacy. At present, the Republic of Moldova has an estimated 7,245 ton of obsolete pesticides and dangerous chemicals, which remain scattered in 22 central warehouses and 4,000 ton that are buried in the dump pesticides site in the southern part of the country. Among the pesticides that have been used in Moldova in the past are organo-chlorinated pesticides listed in the Persistent Organic Pollutants Convention of Stockholm; these are thought to pose the highest health and environmental risks due to their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation potential. The Government of the Republic of Moldova acknowledged that elimination of obsolete pesticides (included POPs) would serve the long-term interests of public health, environment, and economic development of the country. Since 2001, after signing the Stockholm Convention, it was defined as a separate field of actions, which became a priority one among the main environmental issues of the country. In dealing with POPs, the country followed a process that includes developing a clear understanding of the situation, setting priorities and establishing realistic objectives for actions. Preparation of the Moldova National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention followed such a process utilizing a participatory approach whereby all interested partners in society (national and local government, economy, science, energy, agriculture, education, NGOs) had an active role in the decision-making and assumed their full share of responsibility for the National Implementing Plan. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013. Source

Oyuntsetseg N.,Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences | Khasnatinov M.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Molor-Erdene P.,Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences | Oyunbileg J.,National Center for Public Health | And 5 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The herb formulation Deva-5 is used in traditional medicine to treat acute infectious diseases. Deva-5 is composed of five herbs: Gentiana decumbens L., Momordica cochinchinensis L., Hypecoum erectum L., Polygonum bistorta L., and Terminalia chebula Retz. Deva-5 and its five components were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8.Methods: The water extracts of the herbal parts of G. decumbens, H. erectum and P. bistorta, the seeds of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis and Deva-5 were prepared by boiling and clarified by low-speed centrifugation and filtration. To assess the antiviral properties, avian influenza virus isolate A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010(H3N8) was incubated at 37°C for 30 min in the presence and absence of the extracts of five plants and DEVA-5 in various concentrations. Subsequently, the concentration of infectious virus in each sample was determined by plaque assays. Neutralisation indexes and 90% plaque reduction concentrations were estimated for each extract, and the significance of the data was evaluated using statistical methods.Results: The extracts of G. decumbens, H. erectum, P. bistorta and Deva-5 demonstrated no significant toxicity at concentrations up to 2%, whereas extracts of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis were well-tolerated by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells at concentrations up to 1%. The extracts of H. erectum, M. cochinchinensis and T. chebula reduced the titre of A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010 (H3N8) by approximately five-fold (p ≤ 0.05). The other three extracts did not significantly reduce the infectivity of the virus. The plaque reduction neutralisation tests revealed that none of the extracts tested were able to inhibit formation of plaques by 90%. However, three extracts, H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis, were able to inhibit formation of plaques by more than 50% at low dilutions from 1:3 to 1:14. The T. chebula extract had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect.Conclusions: For the first time, the consistent direct antiviral action of the extracts of H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis was detected. These extracts significantly reduced the infectivity of influenza A virus H3N8 in vitro when used at high concentrations (0.5-1%). However, Deva-5 itself and the remainder of its components did not exhibit significant antiviral action. The results suggest that H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis plants contain substances with direct antiviral activity and could be promising sources of new antiviral drugs. © 2014 Oyuntsetseg et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Demaio A.R.,Harvard University | Demaio A.R.,Copenhagen University | Nehme J.,Copenhagen University | Otgontuya D.,National Center for Public Health | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a national NCDs knowledge, attitudes and practices survey focusing, among other things, on NCD risk factors was implemented in Mongolia in late 2010 to complement the previous WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance Survey (STEPS) findings from 2009. This publication explores the smoking-related findings of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAPS). Methods. A nationally representative sample size was calculated using methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPS surveys. As a result, 3450 people from across Mongolia were selected using a multi-stage, random cluster sampling method from permanent residents aged between 15 and 64 years. The KAP survey questionnaire was interviewer-administered on a door-to-door basis. Results: In Mongolia at 2010, 46.3% of males and 6.8% of females were smokers. This practice was especially dominant among males and urban dwellers (MOR 2.2), and more so among the middle-aged (45-54) (MOR 2.1) while still displaying a high prevalence among Mongolian youth (15.5%). The probability of smoking was independent of the level of education. Although the level of awareness of the health hazards related to tobacco smoking was generally very high in the population, this was influenced by the level of education as more people with a primary and secondary level of education believed that smoking at least one pack of cigarette per day was required to harm one's health (MOR 5.8 for primary education and 2.5 for secondary). Finally, this knowledge did not necessarily translate into a behavioural outcome as 15.5% of the population did not object to people smoking in their house, and especially so among males (MOR 4.1). Conclusion: The findings of this KAP survey corroborate the 2009 WHO STEPS Survey findings with regards to the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Mongolia. It identifies males, urban dwellers and Mongolian youth as groups that should be targeted by public health measures on tobacco consumption, while keeping in mind that higher levels of awareness of the harms caused by tobacco smoking do not necessarily translate into behavioural changes. © 2014 Demaio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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