Zhang G.-Y.,Yangzhou University |
Liu R.-R.,Yangzhou University |
Xu G.,Yangzhou University |
Zhang P.,Yangzhou University |
And 6 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2013
Vitamin E comprises a group of eight lipid soluble antioxidant compounds that are an essential part of the human diet. The α-isomers of both tocopherol and tocotrienol are generally considered to have the highest antioxidant activities. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) catalyzes the final step in vitamin E biosynthesis, the methylation of γ- and δ-isomers to α- and β-isomers. In present study, the Arabidopsisγ-TMT (AtTMT) cDNA was overexpressed constitutively or in the endosperm of the elite japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 (WY3) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. HPLC analysis showed that, in brown rice of the wild type or transgenic controls with empty vector, the α-/γ-tocotrienol ratio was only 0.7, much lower than that for tocopherol (~19.0). In transgenic rice overexpressing AtTMT driven by the constitutive Ubi promoter, most of the γ-isomers were converted to α-isomers, especially the γ- and δ-tocotrienol levels were dramatically decreased. As a result, the α-tocotrienol content was greatly increased in the transgenic seeds. Similarly, over-expression of AtTMT in the endosperm also resulted in an increase in the α-tocotrienol content. The results showed that the α-/γ-tocopherol ratio also increased in the transgenic seeds, but there was no significant effect on α-tocopherol level, which may reflect the fact that γ-tocopherol is present in very small amounts in wild type rice seeds. AtTMT overexpression had no effect on the absolute total content of either tocopherols or tocotrienols. Taken together, these results are the first demonstration that the overexpression of a foreign γ-TMT significantly shift the tocotrienol synthesis in rice, which is one of the world's most important food crops. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Zhang H.,Yangzhou University |
Zhao Q.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences |
Sun Z.-Z.,Yangzhou University |
Zhang C.-Q.,Yangzhou University |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2011
Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are useful for the precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and dissection of the genetic basis of complex traits. In this study, two whole-genome sequenced rice cultivars, the japonica Nipponbare and indica 9311 were used as recipient and donor, respectively. A population with 57 CSSLs was developed after crossing and back-crossing assisted by molecular markers, and genotypes were identified using a high-throughput resequencing strategy. Detailed graphical genotypes of 38 lines were constructed based on resequencing data. These CSSLs had a total of 95 substituted segments derived from indica 9311, with an average of about 2.5 segments per CSSL and eight segments per chromosome, and covered about 87.4% of the rice whole genome. A multiple linear regression QTL analysis mapped four QTLs for 1000-grain weight. The largest-effect QTL was located in a region on chromosome 5 that contained a cloned major QTL GW5/qSW5 for grain size in rice. These CSSLs with a background of Nipponbare may provide powerful tools for future whole-genome discovery and functional study of essential genes/QTLs in rice, and offer ideal materials and foundations for japonica breeding. © 2011.
Peng R.-H.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science |
Fu X.-Y.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science |
Zhao W.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science |
Tian Y.-S.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science |
And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Genes from microbes for degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are seldom used to improve the ability of plants to remediate the pollution because the initiation of the microbial degradation of PAHs is catalyzed by a multienzyme system. In this study, for the first time, we have successfully transferred the complex naphthalene dioxygenase system of Pseudomonas into Arabidopsis and rice, the model dicot and monocot plant. As in bacteria, all four genes of the naphthalene dioxygenase system can be simultaneously expressed and assembled to an active enzyme in transgenic plants. The naphthalene dioxygenase system can develop the capacity of plants to tolerate a high concentration of phenanthrene and metabolize phenanthrene in vivo. As a result, transgenic plants showed improved uptake of phenanthrene from the environment over wild-type plants. In addition, phenanthrene concentrations in shoots and roots of transgenic plants were generally lower than that of wild type plants. Transgenic plants with a naphthalene dioxygenase system bring the promise of an efficient and environmental-friendly technology for cleaning up PAHs contaminated soil and water. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Qin F.,Yangzhou University |
Man J.,Yangzhou University |
Cai C.,Yangzhou University |
Xu B.,Yangzhou University |
And 8 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012
In this paper, endosperm starches were isolated from a high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) and its wild type rice Teqing (TQ) kernels at different developmental stages. TQ and TRS starches showed similar amylose contents and shapes at early developmental stage, then the amylose content increased with kernel development. The rate of increase in amylose content was much faster in TRS starches than that in TQ starches. TRS starches showed heterogenous granules at the middle and late developmental stages. TQ starch crystallinity remained A-type, but TRS starch crystallinity changed from A- to C- via C A-type. TRS starches showed higher gelatinization temperatures, lower gelatinization enthalpies, lower swelling powers, and lower hydrolysis rates at middle and late developmental stages compared with TQ starches. The amylose content had a significantly negative correlation with crystallinity, gelatinization enthalpy, swelling power, enzyme digestibility, and acid hydrolysis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li R.,Yangzhou University |
Li R.,National Center for Plant Gene Research Shanghai |
Guo M.,Yangzhou University |
Guo M.,National Center for Plant Gene Research Shanghai |
And 13 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015
Hybrid breakdown is an important form of post-zygotic reproductive barriers, often arising from hybrid progeny between two varietal groups of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), indica and japonica. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the hybrid breakdown remains unclear. In the present study, a chromosomal segment substitute line (CSSL) population together with a backcross inbred line population, derived from the same cross of Sasanishiki/Habataki, were employed for genetic analysis of rice hybrid breakdown (spikelet fertility as index). Quantitative trait locus mapping results showed that, in both populations, qSF-12 was stably detected across different locations and growing seasons, which was found to interact with qSF-8. Subsequently, a CSSL line SL438 with low spikelet fertility was used to cross with Sasanishiki to generate the secondary F2 population for the mapping of qSF-12. The results showed that qSF-12 was restricted to a 137-kb long region on BAC clone AL928774, containing 11 predicted ORFs in total. The DNA sequencing revealed that a 3-bp insertion/deletion exists between two parents in the coding region of LOC_Os12g38850. Together with the RNA-seq data, it is suggested that LOC_Os12g38850is the putative candidate of qSF-12, which encodes a DUF1336 domain containing protein. These results provide an important clue to further dissect the mechanism of hybrid breakdown in rice and the linked markers will be useful in rice cross breeding. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Man J.,Yangzhou University |
Qin F.,Yangzhou University |
Zhu L.,Yangzhou University |
Zhu L.,Kansas State University |
And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health. Acid modification is very helpful for application of high-amylose starch in food and non-food industries. In this study, the ordered structure of acid-modified high-amylose rice starch was investigated by GPC, HPAEC, 13C CP/MAS NMR and XRD. Acid preferentially degraded the amylose, then A chain and short B chain of amylopectin. Relative double helix content and crystallinity both initially increased sharply and then progressively with acid hydrolysis. The relative crystallinity of starches obtained from 13C CP/MAS NMR was higher than that from XRD. The onset gelatinisation temperature decreased, while the peak and conclusion temperatures increased with increasing hydrolysis time. The endothermic value initially increased and then decreased with acid hydrolysis. The swelling power decreased while solubility increased after acid hydrolysis. These results add to our understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on the high-amylose rice starch. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.