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Sarki Yandoka B.M.,University of Malaya | Abubakar M.B.,National Center for Petroleum Research and Development | Abdullah W.H.,University of Malaya | Amir Hassan M.H.,University of Malaya | And 5 more authors.
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

The Benue Trough of Nigeria is a major rift basin formed from the tension generated by the separation of African and South American plates in the Early Cretaceous. It is geographically sub-divided into Southern, Central and Northern Benue portions. The Northern Benue Trough comprises two sub-basins; the N-S trending Gongola Sub-basin and the E-W trending Yola Sub-basin. The Bima Formation is the oldest lithogenetic unit occupying the base of the Cretaceous successions in the Northern Benue Trough. It is differentiated into three members; the Lower Bima (B1), the Middle Bima (B2) and the Upper Bima (B3). Facies and their stratigraphical distribution analyses were conducted on the Lower Bima Member exposed mainly at the core of the NE-SW axially trending Lamurde Anticline in the Yola Sub-basin, with an objective to interpret the paleodepositional environments, and to reconstruct the depositional model and the stratigraphical architecture. Ten (10) lithofacies were identified on the basis of lithology, grain size, sedimentary structures and paleocurrent analysis. The facies constitute three (3) major facies associations; the gravelly dominated, the sandy dominated and the fine grain dominated. These facies and facies associations were interpreted and three facies successions were recognized; the alluvial-proximal braided river, the braided river and the lacustrine-marginal lacustrine. The stratigraphic architecture indicates a rifted (?pull-apart) origin as the facies distribution shows a progradational succession from a shallow lacustrine/marginal lacustrine (at the axial part of the basin) to alluvial fan (sediment gravity flow)-proximal braided river (gravel bed braided river) and braided river (channel and overbank) depositional systems. The facies stacking patterns depict sedimentation mainly controlled by allogenic factors of climate and tectonism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sarki Yandoka B.M.,University of Malaya | Abdullah W.H.,University of Malaya | Abubakar M.B.,National Center for Petroleum Research and Development | Hakimi M.H.,Taiz University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

The shallow marine shales of the Cretaceous formations namely Yolde, Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye and Numanha ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian within the Yola Sub-basin in the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were analysed to provide an overview on their hydrocarbon generation potential. This study is based on pyrolysis analysis, total organic carbon content (TOC), extractable organic matter (EOM), biomarker distributions and measured vitrinite reflectance. The present-day TOC contents range between 0.24 and 0.71 wt. % and Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 8.7 and 113 mg HC/g TOC with Type III/IV kerogens. Based on the present-day kerogen typing, the shale sediments are expected to generate mainly gas. Biomarker compositions indicates deposition in a marine environment under suboxic conditions with prevalent contribution of aquatic organic matter and a significant amount of terrigenous organic matter input. Organic matter that is dominated by marine components contains kerogens of Type II and Type II-III. This study shows that the organic matter has been affected by volcanic intrusion and consequently, have reached post-mature stage of oil generation. These higher thermal maturities levels are consistent with the vitrinite refiectance ranging from 0.85 to 2.35 Ro % and high Tmax (440-508 °C) values as supported by biomarker maturity ratios. Based on this study, a high prospect for major gas and minor oil generation potential is anticipated from the shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Sarki Yandoka B.M.,University of Malaya | Abdullah W.H.,University of Malaya | Abubakar M.B.,National Center for Petroleum Research and Development | Hakimi M.H.,Taiz University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

The Cretaceous coals of Lamja Formation located in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria, were analyzed based on a combined investigation of organic and inorganic geochemistry to define the paleodepositional environment condition, organic matter source inputs and their relation to paleoclimate and tectonic setting. The total organic carbon and sulfur contents of Lamja Formation coals ranges from 48.2%-67.8% wt.% and 0.42%-0.76% wt.%, respectively, pointing their deposition in freshwater environment with inferred marine influence during burial. Biomarkers and chemical compositions provide evidence for a major contribution of land-derived organic matter, with minor aquatic organic matter input. Minerals such as quartz, pyrite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and calcite were present in the coals, suggesting that these minerals were sourced from terrigenous origin with slightly marine influence, considered as post-depositional. This is consistent with a significant amount of the oxides of major elements such as SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, and MgO. The investigated biomarkers are characterized by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes (n-C23 to n-C33), moderately high Pr/Ph ratios (1.72-3.75), very high Tm/Ts ratios (18-29), and high concentrations of regular sterane C29, indicating oxic to relatively suboxic conditions, delta plain marine environment of deposition with prevalent contribution of land plants and minor aquatic organic matter input. Concentrations of trace elements such as Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Co and their standard ratios also suggested that the organic matter was deposited under oxic to relatively suboxic conditions, which is in parts deposited under marine influenced. Some standard binary plots of SiO2 versus (Al2O3+K2O+Na2O) indicate a semi-arid paleoclimatic condition whereas log SiO2 versus (K2O/Na2O) also revealed passive continental margin setting. The inferred tectonic setting is in agreement with the tectonic events witnessed in the West and Central Africa during the Cretaceous period. © 2015.


Sarki Yandoka B.M.,University of Malaya | Abubakar M.B.,National Center for Petroleum Research and Development | Abubakar M.B.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University | Abdullah W.H.,University of Malaya | And 6 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2015

Sedimentology, organic and inorganic geochemical studies were applied on sediments of the Cretaceous Yolde formation from Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria with an attempt to determine the sedimentary facies, paleo-redox condition and to re-construct the palaeo-depositional environments. Eight (8) facies were identified on the basis of lithology, grain size, ichnofossils/degree of bioturbation and sedimentary structures. These facies constitute four facies associations; the FA-1 (offshore marine), FA-2 (offshore transition to lower shoreface), FA-3 (middle shoreface) and FA-4 (upper shoreface). The succession of these facies associations indicates storm and wave influenced offshore/shoreface depositional environments for the formation. Molecular organic geochemical investigation suggests deposition under sub-oxic marine environment with major contribution of phytoplankton, bacteria and minor amount of terrigenous organic matter. XRD mineralogical assessment, and major and trace elements geochemistry revealed that the Yolde formation sediments were sourced from continental areas of passive continental margin setting and deposited in semiarid climate under suboxic shallow marine conditions related to the first marine transgression that occurred in the Benue Trough during the Late Cretaceous period. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Sarki Yandoka B.M.,University of Malaya | Abdullah W.H.,University of Malaya | Abubakar M.B.,National Center for Petroleum Research and Development | Hakimi M.H.,Taiz University | And 2 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2015

The Bima Formation is the oldest lithogenetic unit occupying the base of the Cretaceous successions in the Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough. It is differentiated into Lower (B1), Middle (B2) and Upper (B3) Bima Members. Integrated organic and inorganic geochemical studies were applied on the lacustrine sediments of the Bima Formation with the aim of reconstructing the palaeodepositional environment and organic matter input in response to climate and tectonism. The analysed sediments were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine environment with a low-salinity stratified water column and suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions, as indicated by the bulk geochemical parameters. The biomarkers provide evidence for a contribution of aquatic algae and microorganisms, with a significant amount of terrigenous organic matter input. The preservation of the organic matter is possibly attributed to the stratified water column with low salinity and suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. Based on the geochemistry of major and trace elements, the sediments were deposited during semi-arid climatic conditions within passive continental margin setting. This agrees with the tectonic events in the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) during the Early Cretaceous period. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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