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Sutoh C.,Chiba University | Sutoh C.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Matsuzawa D.,Chiba University | Matsuzawa D.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Scientific Reports

Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring. Source

Sanjo N.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Kina S.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Shishido-Hara Y.,Tokyo Medical University | Nose Y.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | And 7 more authors.
Internal Medicine

A 53-year-old man was admitted for sub-acute progressive dementia and Gerstmann syndrome. MRI demonstrated lesions in the white matter involving the left parietal lobe, accompanied by speckled or faint linear peripheral enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes and balanced infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. We diagnosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with controlled inflammation. The finding of CD4/CD8 T cells in the infected PML brain suggested therapeutically valuable immune system involvement, which we decided to preserve by withholding corticosteroids. We treated the patient with risperidone, cytarabine and mefloquine to suppress virus replication, but not with the corticosteroid that is conventionally used in inflammatory PML cases. The patient was discharged three months after admission, and one year later, his score on the Mini-Mental State Examination had recovered to 26/30, from 5/30 on admission. © 2016 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. Source

Ito S.,Institute of Gerontology | Ito S.,University of Tokyo | Takao M.,Institute of Gerontology | Hatsuta H.,Institute of Gerontology | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology

In Lewy body disease, Lewy pathology (LP: the accumulation of a-synuclein in neuronal perikarya and processes as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites and dots, respectively) is observed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previous autopsy or biopsy studies of individuals with Lewy body diseases (LBDs) indicated that LP could be observed in the peripheral nerves of the gastrointestinal (GI) systems. The aim of this study is to clarify whether examination of GI and biliary surgical specimens would be useful for diagnosing LBD. We analyzed eight patients diagnosed clinically with LBD and with medical histories of GI or biliary surgery at our hospital. LP was identified by using a-synuclein immunohistochemistry in GI and biliary surgical specimens obtained before, at or after the clinical onset of LBD. LP was frequently observed in Auerbach's plexus, Meissner's plexus and the subserosal nerve fascicles within the GI and biliary surgical specimens. LP was observed in the specimens obtained 7 years before the onset of LBD. Our approach does not require any invasive procedures for patients. The immunohistochemical analysis of anti- α-synuclein antibody to archival GI or biliary surgical specimens from patients with clinically suspected LBD may contribute to clinical diagnosis of LBD. Source

Miyashita A.,Niigata University | Koike A.,Hitachi Ltd. | Jun G.,Boston University | Wang L.-S.,University of Pennsylvania | And 57 more authors.

To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10-5 were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10-7 in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10-9) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10-8). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10-5) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10-4). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations. © 2013 Miyashita et al. Source

Fujisawa D.,National Cancer Center East | Fujisawa D.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Fujisawa D.,Keio University | Umezawa S.,National Cancer Center East | And 5 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer

Purpose: This study aims to investigate smoking status and its associated factors among Japanese cancer survivors. We stretched our focus on association with health-related behaviors other than smoking (alcohol intake, physical exercise, and social activity) and the smoking cessation strategies used by cancer survivors.Methods: An anonymous cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted, enrolling survivors of various types of cancer up to 10 years after diagnosis. Smoking status, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors other than smoking, and smoking cessation resource that the participants used were evaluated. Factors associated with continuous smoking after cancer diagnosis were explored using multivariate analysis.Results: Among 168 participants who were smoking at the time of cancer diagnosis, 96 participants (57.1 %) continued smoking. Sixty-seven survivors (69.8 %) were willing to reduce or quit smoking, however, only 39 survivors (40.6 %) were provided with counseling or intervention on smoking cessation. Male gender, shorter time after cancer diagnosis, and lack of regular physical exercise associated with continuous smoking. Higher level of fear of cancer recurrence had trend-level significance of association with smoking cessation.Conclusions: Substantial proportions of Japanese cancer survivors continue smoking after diagnosis of cancer. The majority of them are not provided with relevant information or support, despite their willingness of reducing or quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is associated with other health behaviors (i.e., physical exercise). This suggests considerable missed opportunities for health-care providers to provide cancer survivors with counseling and evidence-based interventions. Promotion of professional support on smoking cessation and education to encourage healthy behaviors are needed. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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