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Wang J.,Shanghai University | Ye X.-F.,Shanghai University | Guo X.-J.,Shanghai University | Zhu T.-T.,Shanghai University | And 8 more authors.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2015

Purpose: Statistical shrinkage is a potential statistical method to improve the accuracy of signal detection results and avoid spurious associations detected by disproportionality analyses. In this study, we introduced statistical shrinkage influence on disproportionality methods in spontaneous reporting system in China. Methods: We added the shrinkage parameters in the numerator and denominator, denoted as in the formula of disproportionality analysis. The shrinkage parameters were subjectively set to between 0 and 5, with an interval of 0.1. Adverse drug reaction product label database was deemed as a proxy of golden standard to evaluate the effect of statistical shrinkage. Reports in the years of 2010-2011 were extracted from the national spontaneous reporting system database as the data source for analysis in this study. Results: When α was around 0.5, the Youden index reached the maximum for each disproportionality methods in this study. The value of 0.6 was suggested as the most appropriate statistical shrinkage parameter for reporting odds ratio and proportional reporting ratio and 0.2 for information component based on the spontaneous reporting system of China. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

News Article | June 30, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Leading scientists in the United States warn that the long-term effects of the El Niño phenomenon could cause the Amazon to experience more intense forest fires this year. The El Niño of 2015 and the early part of 2016 have impacted rainfall patterns in the different parts of the world. One of those significantly affected by the extreme weather condition is the Amazon, which saw a considerable decrease in the amount of rainfall during its wet season. This left the region to experience its driest point since 2002 by the time it entered its dry season this year, according to satellite data from NASA. Doug Morton, an expert on Earth science from NASA, said that this year's El Niño phenomenon has also made the Amazon more susceptible to wildfires than in 2005 and 2010, when the region suffered from widespread forest fires brought on by drought. Morton explained that the southern part of the Amazon is now at a high risk for wildfires due to the severe drought conditions the area has been undergoing since the beginning of the dry season. To find out the risks of forest fires in the Amazon, scientists made use of a system developed by NASA and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). This technology examines the relationship between climate and active fire detection data from NASA satellites in order to determine the severity of the region's fire season. The forecast model centers on the connection between fire activity and sea surface temperatures. The Amazon becomes more susceptible to wildfires whenever higher sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans alter weather patterns in the region, causing it to experience significantly less rainfall. The team also studied terrestrial water storage data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission in order to identify changes in the groundwater in the Amazon during its dry season. These measurements were used as a substitute for the relative dryness of forests and soils. NASA and UCI researchers have coordinated with scientists and officials in South America to raise their awareness on wildfire forecasts over the years. Liana Anderson, a scientist from Brazil's National Center for Monitoring and Early Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN), said the wildfire forecasts are crucial since they allow them to know which particular areas are more likely to suffer forest fires. This gives them an opportunity to coordinate their plans in support of local efforts. According to recent estimates, El Niño-related conditions in the Amazon have become much drier this year than during the drought years of 2005 and 2010. NASA and UCI scientists have created a web tool to help them monitor the progress of the region's fire season almost in real time. Fire emission readings from each one of the forecast regions are updated every day using active fire detection data gathered through the Terra satellite's Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, as well as fire emissions data from previous years recorded in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Using these data, the researchers discovered that the Amazon has experienced more wildfires in recent times than in any other point in history, which is in accordance with the forecast on the region's fire severity. Jim Randerson, a scientist from UCI and one of the developers of the forecast model, said trees become more susceptible to fires and evaporate lower amounts of water into Earth's atmosphere when they don't have enough moisture to draw upon at the start of the dry season. During such scenarios, Randerson said millions of trees are exposed to higher levels of stress, lowering the available humidity across their region. This in turn causes forest fires to become larger than what they would typically be under normal conditions. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Wang Y.,National Center for Monitoring | Dong D.,National Center for Monitoring | Cheng G.,National Center for Monitoring | Zuo S.,World Health Organization | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most severe form of viral encephalitis in Asia and no specific treatment is available. Vaccination provides an effective intervention to prevent JE. In this paper, surveillance data for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) related to SA-14-14-2 live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Chengdu Institute of Biological Products) was presented. This information has been routinely generated by the Chinese national surveillance system for the period 2009-2012. There were 6024 AEFI cases (estimated reported rate 96.55 per million doses). Most common symptoms of adverse events were fever, redness, induration and skin rash. There were 70 serious AEFI cases (1.12 per million doses), including 9 cases of meningoencephalitis and 4 cases of death. The post-marketing surveillance data add the evidence that the Chengdu institute live attenutated vaccine has a reasonable safety profile. The relationship between encephalitis and SA-14-14-2 vaccination should be further studied. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ma H.,Liaoning Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center | Jin D.,Liaoning Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center | Zhao P.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Wang C.-T.,National Center for Monitoring | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs | Year: 2014

Through searching the websites of the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), the US FDA, EMEA, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) and WSMI, we introduced the types of children's expectorant medicines in our country and the management status of children's expectorant medicine home and abroad, and analyzed the risk source of children's medicine use. Moreover, we searched and summarized the risk control measures taken by Europe, the US and Japan on the use of children's expectorant chemical drugs. Based on these, we put forward relevant suggestions on regulating the use of children's expectorant chemical medicines in our country.

Wang L.,National Center for Monitoring | Zhou J.,National Center for Monitoring | Zhang X.,National Center for Monitoring | Lin X.,National Center for Monitoring
Zhongguo yi liao qi xie za zhi = Chinese journal of medical instrumentation | Year: 2014

On the basis of real working practices in data normalization, the case reports from the monitoring system were studied, non-standard reports were summarized and the reasons were analyzed, the methods of data normalization and improving the reporting quality were discussed. The standard databases and the rule databases were created, they were capable of automatic completion of the standardization work of new cases.

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