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Zhang H.-C.,China Pharmaceutical University | Liu J.-M.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | Chen H.-M.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | Gao C.-C.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We evaluated the effect of Tween 80 as elicitor on licochalcone A from hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. After a 15-days treatment with 2% Tween 80, hairy roots still grew well and produced higher levels of licochalcone A and total flavonoids than the control (without treatment). Licochalcone A content and total flavonoid content were 3.103 and 127.095 mg per flask (9- and 11-fold higher), respectively, compared with controls. Secretion of licochalcone A and total flavonoids into the culture medium was remarkably high, up to 98 and 94% of the total production, respectively. The enhanced flavonoid production was associated with elevated mRNA levels and enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H). These results clearly demonstrated that Tween 80 treatment permeabilized the roots to enhance secretion, but also acted as an efficient elicitor of licochalcone A and total flavonoid production in hairy roots of G. uralensis Fisch. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Liu L.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | Liu L.,Frontier Laboratories of Systems Crop Design Co. | Fan X.-D.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | Fan X.-D.,Frontier Laboratories of Systems Crop Design Co.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Targeted gene regulation on a genome-wide scale is a powerful strategy for interrogating, perturbing, and engineering cellular systems. Recent advances with the RNA-mediated Cas9 endonuclease derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems have dramatically transformed our ability to specifically modify intact genomes of diverse cells and organisms. The CRISPR-Cas system has been adapted as an efficient, facile, and robust gene-targeting technology with the potential for high-throughput and multiplexed genome engineering. Exciting breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms of the CRISPR-Cas system and its enormous potential for applications across basic science, agricultural and biotechnology. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Liu L.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | Fan X.-D.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Pollen acts as a biological protector for protecting male sperm from various harsh conditions and is covered by an outer cell wall polymer called the exine, a major constituent of which is sporopollenin. The tapetum is in direct contact with the developing gametophytes and plays an essential role in pollen wall and pollen coat formation. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying tapetal development remain highly elusive, but molecular genetic studies have identified a number of genes that control the formation, differentiation, and programmed cell death of tapetum and interactions of genes in tapetal development. Herein, several lines of evidence suggest that sporopollenin is built up via catalytic enzyme reactions in the tapetum. Furthermore, as based on genetic evidence, we review the currently accepted understanding of the molecular regulation of sporopollenin biosynthesis and examine unanswered questions regarding the requirements underpinning proper exine pattern formation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Chen H.,Hunan Normal University | Chen H.,Peking University | Chen W.,Peking University | Zhou J.,National Center for Molecular Crop Design | And 5 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2012

Abiotic stress has been shown to limit the growth, development, and productivity of crops. Here, we characterized the function of a rice bZIP transcription factor OsbZIP16 in drought stress. Expression of OsbZIP16 was dramatically induced under drought conditions. Transient expression and transactivation assays demonstrated that OsbZIP16 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. At both the seedling and tillering stages, transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsbZIP16 exhibited significantly improved drought resistance, which was positively correlated with the observed expression levels of OsbZIP16. Representative downstream drought-inducible genes were observed to have significantly higher expression levels in transgenic rice plants than in the wild type plants under drought conditions. OsbZIP16 was shown to be induced by exogenous ABA treatment, while overexpression of OsbZIP16 was observed to make transgenic plants more sensitive to ABA than wild type plants were. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between wild type plants and plants overexpressing OsbZIP16, many of which are involved in stress response according to their gene ontologies. Overall, our findings suggest that OsbZIP16 positively regulates drought resistance in rice. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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