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Chaussenot A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Chaussenot A.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Le Ber I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Le Ber I.,National Reference Center on Rare Dementias | And 14 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging

Mutations in the CHCHD10 gene have been recently identified in a large family with a complex phenotype variably associating frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebellar ataxia, myopathy, and hearing impairment. CHCHD10 encodes a protein located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is likely involved in mitochondrial genome stability and maintenance of cristae junctions. However, the exact contribution of CHCHD10 in FTD and ALS diseases spectrum remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of CHCHD10 mutations in 115 patients with FTD and FTD-ALS phenotypes. We identified 2 heterozygous variants in 3 unrelated probands presenting FTD and ALS, characterized by early and predominant bulbar symptoms. This study demonstrates the implication of CHCHD10 in FTD and ALS spectrum. Although the frequency of mutations is low in this series (2.6%), our work suggests that CHCHD10 mutations should be searched particularly when bulbar symptoms are present at onset. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Chaussenot A.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Chaussenot A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Rouzier C.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Rouzier C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Genetics

WFS1 mutations are responsible for Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and for low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). Our aim was to analyze the French cohort of 96 patients with WFS1-related disorders in order (i) to update clinical and molecular data with 37 novel affected individuals, (ii) to describe uncommon phenotypes and, (iii) to precise the frequency of large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 13 patients, carrying only one heterozygous variant, to identify large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. Among the 37 novel patients, 15 carried 15 novel deleterious putative mutations, including one large deletion of 17,444 base pairs. The analysis of the cohort revealed unexpected phenotypes including (i) late-onset symptoms in 13.8% of patients with a probable autosomal recessive transmission; (ii) two siblings with recessive optic atrophy without diabetes mellitus and, (iii) six patients from four families with dominantly-inherited deafness and optic atrophy. We highlight the expanding spectrum of WFS1-related disorders and we show that, even if large deletions are rare events, they have to be searched in patients with classical WS carrying only one WFS1 mutation after sequencing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Chaussenot A.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Chaussenot A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Paquis-Flucklinger V.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Paquis-Flucklinger V.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
Revue Neurologique

Mitochondrial disorders have a broad clinical spectrum and are genetically heterogeneous, involving two genomes. These disorders may be develop at any age, with isolated or multiple system involvement, and any pattern of inheritance. Neurological involvement is the most frequent, and concerns muscular, peripheral and central nervous system. Among these diverse signs, some are suggestive of mitochondrial disease, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, psychomotor regression, stroke-like episodes, refractory epilepsy and Epilepsia Partialis Continua. Others are less specific and mitochondrial hypothesis may be evocated because of either association of different neuromuscular signs or a multisystemic involvement. This review describes the wealth of this neurological and neuromuscular symptomatology through different syndromes reported in the literature, according to preponderant signs and to modes of inheritance, as key elements to guide genetics testing. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Fragaki K.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Fragaki K.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Ait-El-Mkadem S.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Ait-El-Mkadem S.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

We report two children, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with early-onset refractory epilepsy associated with psychomotor delay, failure to thrive, blindness and deafness. Polarographic and spectrophotometric analyses in fibroblasts and liver revealed a respiratory chain (RC) dysfunction. Surprisingly, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in the GM3 synthase gene by using exome sequencing. GM3 synthase catalyzes the formation of GM3 ganglioside from lactosylceramide, which is the first step in the synthesis of complex ganglioside species. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the complete absence of GM3 ganglioside and its biosynthetic derivatives was associated with an upregulation of the alternative globoside pathway in fibroblasts. The accumulation of Gb3 and Gb4 globosides likely has a role in RC dysfunction and in the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential leading to apoptosis, which we observed in fibroblasts. We show for the first time that GM3 synthase deficiency, responsible for early-onset epilepsy syndrome, leads to a secondary RC dysfunction. Our study highlights the role of secondary mitochondrial disorders that can interfere with the diagnosis and the evolution of other metabolic diseases. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Rouzier C.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Rouzier C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Chaussenot A.,National Center for Mitochondrial Diseases | Serre V.,University Paris Diderot | And 21 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

Polymerase gamma (POLG) is the gene most commonly involved in mitochondrial disorders with mitochondrial DNA instability and causes a wide range of diseases with recessive or dominant transmission. More than 170 mutations have been reported. Most of them are missense mutations, although nonsense mutations, splice-site mutations, small deletions and insertions have also been identified. However, to date, only one large-scale rearrangement has been described in a child with Alpers syndrome. Below, we report a large cohort of 160 patients with clinical, molecular and/or biochemical presentation suggestive of POLG deficiency. Using sequencing, we identified POLG variants in 22 patients (18 kindreds) including five novel pathogenic mutations. Two patients with novel mutations had unusual clinical presentation: the first exhibited an isolated ataxic neuropathy and the second was a child who presented with endocrine signs. We completed the sequencing step by quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) analysis in 37 patients with either only one POLG heterozygous variant or a family history suggesting a dominant transmission. We identified a large intragenic deletion encompassing part of intron 21 and exon 22 of POLG in a child with refractory epilepsia partialis continua. In conclusion, we describe the first large French cohort of patients with POLG mutations, expanding the wide clinical and molecular spectrum observed in POLG disease. We confirm that large deletions in the POLG gene are rare events and we highlight the importance of QMPSF in patients with a single heterozygous POLG mutation, particularly in severe infantile phenotypes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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