Time filter

Source Type

Alastruey-Izquierdo A.,National Center for Microbiology | Mellado E.,National Center for Microbiology | Pelaez T.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Peman J.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

A population-based survey was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of and antifungal resistance in Spanish clinical strains of filamentous fungi isolated from deep tissue samples, blood cultures, and respiratory samples. The study was conducted in two different periods (October 2010 and May 2011) to analyze seasonal variations. A total of 325 strains were isolated in 29 different hospitals. The average prevalence was 0.0016/1,000 inhabitants. Strains were identified by sequencing of DNA targets and susceptibility testing by the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing reference procedure. The most frequently isolated genus was Aspergillus, accounting for 86.3% of the isolates, followed by Scedosporium at 4.7%; the order Mucorales at 2.5%; Penicillium at 2.2%, and Fusarium at 1.2%. The most frequent species was Aspergillus fumigatus (48.5%), followed by A. flavus (8.4%), A. terreus (8.1%), A. tubingensis (6.8%), and A. niger (6.5%). Cryptic/sibling Aspergillus species accounted for 12% of the cases. Resistance to amphotericin B was found in 10.8% of the isolates tested, while extended-spectrum triazole resistance ranged from 10 to 12.7%, depending on the azole tested. Antifungal resistance was more common among emerging species such as those of Scedosporium and Mucorales and also among cryptic species of Aspergillus, with 40% of these isolates showing resistance to all of the antifungal compounds tested. Cryptic Aspergillus species seem to be underestimated, and their correct classification could be clinically relevant. The performance of antifungal susceptibility testing of the strains implicated in deep infections and multicentric studies is recommended to evaluate the incidence of these cryptic species in other geographic areas. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Rodriguez-Tudela J.L.,National Center for Microbiology | Alastruey-Izquierdo A.,National Center for Microbiology | Alastruey-Izquierdo A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Gago S.,National Center for Microbiology | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections, based on epidemiological data, are essential in order to inform public health priorities given the lack of resources dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of these serious fungal diseases. However, epidemiology of these infections is largely unknown, except for candidaemia and cryptococcosis. The aim of this work is to calculate the burden of serious fungal infections in Spain. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Spain were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. Around 8.1 million people suffer a fungal infection every year. Most of them are skin or mucosal infections causing no deaths. Candidaemia is more common than in other European countries and has risen by 1.88-fold in frequency in the last decade (8.1 cases×100000). Good estimates of invasive aspergillosis (2.75 cases×100000) and mucormycosis (0.04×100000) are available. Fungal infections with a high mortality such as invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and mucormycosis are not numerous in Spain, but they affect those with severe underlying diseases and are therefore linked to poor outcomes. Additional studies are required, especially for high burden diseases such as recurrent thrush in women (~9000 cases×100000 women), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (126 cases×100000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (198 cases×100000). © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | Institute Salud Carlos III, University of Valencia, National Center for Microbiology, University of Barcelona and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections, based on epidemiological data, are essential in order to inform public health priorities given the lack of resources dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of these serious fungal diseases. However, epidemiology of these infections is largely unknown, except for candidaemia and cryptococcosis. The aim of this work is to calculate the burden of serious fungal infections in Spain. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Spain were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. Around 8.1 million people suffer a fungal infection every year. Most of them are skin or mucosal infections causing no deaths. Candidaemia is more common than in other European countries and has risen by 1.88-fold in frequency in the last decade (8.1 cases 100,000). Good estimates of invasive aspergillosis (2.75 cases 100,000) and mucormycosis (0.04 100,000) are available. Fungal infections with a high mortality such as invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and mucormycosis are not numerous in Spain, but they affect those with severe underlying diseases and are therefore linked to poor outcomes. Additional studies are required, especially for high burden diseases such as recurrent thrush in women (9000 cases 100,000 women), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (126 cases 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (198 cases 100,000).


Rolo D.,University of Barcelona | Rolo D.,CIBER ISCIII | Fenoll A.,National Center for Microbiology | Ardanuy C.,University of Barcelona | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Objectives: To analyse the epidemiology of isolates of serotype 6C among invasive pneumococci isolated from children and adults in Spain between 1997 and 2009, and to characterize serotype 6C clones and macrolide and quinolone resistance mechanisms. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined following CLSI guidelines. Phenotypic characterization of macrolide-resistant isolates was performed by the double disc diffusion method. Genes associated with resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline were sought by PCR, while quinolone resistance was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the quinolone resistance-determining region. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-nine of 866 serotype 6A pneumococci collected from 1997 to 2009 were available. Of these, 213 (27.0%) were serotype 6C; 16/163 (9.8%) in the 1997-2001 (pre-PCV7) period, 37/322 (11.5%) in the 2002-05 (early-PCV7) period and 160/381 (42.0%) in the 2006-09 (late-PCV7) period. The overall proportions of serotype 6C increased from 0.1% (pre-PCV7) to 1% (late-PCV7) for paediatric isolates and from 0.3% to 1.7% among adult isolates. A major serotype 6C lineage (ST224/ST1150/ST4821), accounting for 66.7% of the isolates, was identified across the whole period. In the late-PCV7 period the antimicrobial non-susceptibility of serotype 6C increased in association with the emergence of the ST386/ST4310/ST4825 lineage, which carried a Tn6002 transposon [erm(B) and tet(M) genes]. Conclusions: Serotype 6C pneumococci were identified in Spain during the period 1997-2009. The increase in serotype 6C in the late-PCV7 period was associated with the spread of the ST224/ST1150/ST4821 lineage and the emergence of the ST386/ST4310/ST4825 lineage. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Calvo C.,Hospital Severo Ochoa | Casas I.,National Center for Microbiology | Garcia-Garcia M.L.,Hospital Severo Ochoa | Pozo F.,National Center for Microbiology | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Recently a new genogroup of human rhinovirus (HRV) has been described and named HRV-C. The relative importance of HRV-C in viral respiratory tract illnesses is unknown. Objective: We looked for HRV-C in pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections to determine the incidence of HRV-C and its role in sick and healthy children. We describe the clinical differences associated with HRV-C infections and other HRV genogroups. Patients and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2008, a prospective study was conducted in children younger than 14 years who were admitted with respiratory infection to the Pediatrics Department of the Severo Ochoa Hospital in Madrid, Spain. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virologic study with polymerase chain reaction, and clinical data were recorded. HRV specimens were genotyped. We studied the frequency of HRV-C infections, the clinical course of these Patients and the differences with other HRV genogroups (HRV-A and HRV-B). Presence of HRV-C was also studied in a group of healthy children. Results: HRV was detected in 424 of 1555 episodes of illness (27.2%) and in 26 of 211 healthy children (12.3%) (P < 0.001). We amplified at random 248 of them (227 hospitalized children and 21 healthy children): 132 (53.2%) had HRV-A, 28 (11.2%) had HRV-B, and 88 (35.4%) HRV-C. HRV-C infections were associated with asthma, recurrent wheezing, and bronchiolitis but were not significantly different from the HRV-A genogroup. Nevertheless, significant clinical differences were observed between the HRV-B genogroup and the other groups: more frequent infiltrate on chest radiograph (P = 0.017), fever (P = 0.052), diagnosis of pneumonia (P = 0.01), and antibiotic treatment (P = 0.004). Conclusions: HRV-C infections were frequent in hospitalized children with respiratory diseases and were associated with asthma, recurrent wheezing, and bronchiolitis. No clinical differences were found with the HRV-A group: HRV-B group had clinical differences with both the other groups. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Munoz-Almagro C.,University of Barcelona | Gala S.,Hospital Universitari Sant Joan Of Deu | Selva L.,University of Barcelona | Jordan I.,Hospital Universitari Sant Joan Of Deu | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a rapid quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the direct detection and quantification of pneumococcal DNA bacterial load (DBL) in patients with pneumonia and empyema. DBL and molecular serotype detection was determined by DNA quantification of the pneumolysin (ply) gene and an additional capsular gene by real-time PCR. Plasma or pleural fluid samples from children and adolescents with confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia were analyzed. DBL was correlated with clinical parameters and outcomes. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with pneumococcal pneumonia (145 empyema) had bacterial cultures and real-time PCR assays performed. Among them, 41 (24.3%) had positive results for both, 4 (2.4%) had positive culture alone, and 124 (73.3%) had positive real-time PCR alone. The pleural fluid DBL was lower in patients with prior antibiotics (p = 0.01) and higher in patients with positive culture (p < 0.001). The pleural fluid DBL was positively correlated with serum C-reactive protein (p = 0.009), pleural fluid neutrophils (p < 0.001), and pleural fluid glucose (p < 0.001). The plasma and pleural fluid DBL were higher in patients with ≥8 days of hospital stay (p = 0.002), and the pleural fluid DBL was positively correlated with the number of hours of pleural drainage (p < 0.001). Quantification of pneumococcal DBL by real-time PCR may be helpful for the diagnosis and clinical management of pediatric patients with pneumonia and empyema © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Arendrup M.C.,Statens Serum Institute | Cuenca-Estrella M.,National Center for Microbiology | Lass-Florl C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Hope W.W.,University of Liverpool
Mycoses | Year: 2014

The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing has determined breakpoints for micafungin and revised breakpoints for anidulafungin and fluconazole for Candida spp. This Technical Note is based on the corresponding rationale documents (http://www.eucast.org). The micafungin breakpoints are based on PK data, animal PK/PD data, microbiological data and clinical experience. The anidulafungin breakpoints for C. parapsilosis and fluconazole breakpoints for C. glabrata have been modified to species-specific values that categorise the wild-type as intermediate to accommodate use of these compounds in some clinical situations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Pelegrin I.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Ayats J.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Xiol X.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Cuenca-Estrella M.,National Center for Microbiology | And 6 more authors.
Transplant Infectious Disease | Year: 2011

Disseminated adiaspiromycosis is a rare infection that is sometimes associated with immunocompromised situations. We report the case of a patient, infected with human immunodeficiency virus and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, who had a liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient presented skin and pulmonary lesions due to adiaspiromycosis during immunosuppressive therapy. A review of >60 cases in the literature shows that adiaspiromycosis is a rare infection and Emmonsia is a dimorphic fungus that is difficult to grow. It should be considered a possible diagnosis in case of fungal infection and pulmonary granulomatosis. We should be aware of emerging adiaspiromycosis in patients with risk factors of immunosuppression, particularly transplant recipients. In these patients in particular, liposomal amphotericin B therapy should be considered. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Morosini M.I.,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital | Quereda C.,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital | Gil H.,National Center for Microbiology | Anda P.,National Center for Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions.


Duran-Valle M.T.,Hospital Universitario Of Mostoles | Gago S.,National Center for Microbiology | Gomez-Lopez A.,National Center for Microbiology | Cuenca-Estrella M.,National Center for Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

We report two episodes of recurrent candidemia caused by echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata in a 69-year-old patient who underwent repeated abdominal surgery. In the first episode of candidemia, an echinocandin-susceptible Candida glabrata strain was isolated, and the patient was treated with caspofungin. The isolates from the later episodes showed resistance to echinocandins. Analysis of the HS1 region of the FKS2 gene showed the amino acid substitution S663P. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated a strong genetic relationship between the isolates. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Loading National Center for Microbiology collaborators
Loading National Center for Microbiology collaborators