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Krishna G.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sahoo R.N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Pargal S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gupta V.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2014

The potential of hyperspectral reflectance data was explored to assess severity of yellow rust disease (Biotroph Pucciniastriiformis) of winter wheat in the present study. The hyperspectral remote sensing data was collected for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropat different levels of disease infestation using field spectroradiometer over the spectral range of 350 to 2500nm. The partial least squares (PLS) and multiple linear (MLR) regression techniques were used to identify suitable bands and develop spectral models for assessing severity of yellow rust disease in winter wheat crop. The PLS model based on the full spectral range and n = 36, yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.96, a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 12.74 and a root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 12.41. The validation analysis of this PLS model yielded r2 as 0.93 with a SEP (Standard Error of Prediction) of 7.80 and a RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of prediction) of 7.46. The loading weights of latent variables from PLS model were used to identify sensitive wavelengths. To assess their suitability multiple linear regression (MLR) model was applied on these wavelengths which resulted in a MLR model with three identified wavelength bands (428nm, 672nm and 1399nm). MLR model yielded acceptable results in the form of r2 as 0.89 for calibration and 0.90 for validation with SEP of 3.90 and RMSEP of 3.70. The result showed that the developed model had a great potential for precise delineation and detection of yellow rust disease in winter wheat crop.


Kumar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chattopadhyay C.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Singh K.N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Vennila S.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Rao V.,All India Coordinated Res. Proj. on Agrometeorology
Mausam | Year: 2014

Trend analysis of the climate variables at different locations (Kanpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pusa, Pantnagar, Parbhani, Varanasi and Pune) in India were studied. These locations are very important for growing of pulses especially pigeonpea. Trend in these locations were analyzed for the maximum temperature (MaxT), minimum temperature (MinT), rainfall (RF) and bright sunshine hours (BSH) on seasonal (summer, kharif or rainy season and rabi or post-rainy season), monthly (January to December), and weekly (1-52 standard meteorological week) time scales for the period 1970-2010. Significant trends were identified using the Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slope estimator. Maximum and minimum temperature series showed a rising trend at most of the stations. Some stations located in the north and northeastern India showed a falling trend in temperature. At most of the stations in the south, central and western parts of India a rising trend was found in various climatic variables except rainfall. Most of the data used in trend analysis pertained to the stations located in urban areas considered as heat islands.


Vennila S.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Prasad Y.G.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Prabhakar M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Agarwal M.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2013

The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Sreedevi G.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Prasad Y.G.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Prabhakar M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Rao G.R.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. © 2013 Sreedevi et al.


Arora S.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Mukherji I.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Tanwar R.K.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

The main aim of the present investigations was to compare the pesticide load in integrated pest management (IPM) with non-IPM crops of rice fields. The harvest samples of Basmati rice grain, soil, and irrigation water, from IPM and non-IPM field trials, at villages in northern India, were analyzed using multi-pesticide residue method. The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2008–2011) for the successful validation of the modules, synthesized for Basmati rice, at these locations. Residues of tricyclazole, propiconazole, hexconazole, lambda cyhalothrin, pretilachlor chlorpyrifos, DDVP, carbendazim, and imidacloprid were analyzed from two locations, Dudhli village of Dehradun, Uttrakhand and Saboli and Aterna village of Sonepat, Haryana. The pesticide residues were observed below detectable limit (BDL) (<0.001–0.05 μg/g) in all 24 samples of rice grains and soil under IPM and non-IPM trials. Residues were below detection level (<0.001–0.05 μg/L) in irrigation water samples (2008–09). Residues of tricyclazole and carbendazim, analyzed from same locations, revealed pesticide residues as BDL (<0.001–0.05 μg/g) in all 40 samples of Basmati rice grains and soil. It was also observed as BDL (<0.001–0.05 μg/L) for 12 water samples (2009–2010). The residues of tricyclazole, propioconazole, chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, pretilachlor, and λ-cyhalothrin were also found as BDL (<0.001–0.05 μg/g) in 40 samples of Basmati rice grains and soil and 12 water samples (<0.001–0.05 μg/L) (2010–2011). © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Prabhakar M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Prasad Y.G.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Vennila S.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Thirupathi M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2013

Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, a native of North America, is a widespread exotic mealybug infesting cotton, Gossypium spp. in several countries. Monitoring of this pest is generally undertaken through regular field surveys, which is labour intensive, time consuming and error prone. Alternately, radiometry is a reliable technique for rapid and non-destructive assessment of plant health. Thus, a study was conducted to characterize reflectance spectra of cotton plants with known mealybug infestation levels (grade-0 is healthy and grade-4 is severe), and seek to identify specific narrow wavelengths sensitive to mealybug damage. Reflectance measurements were made in the spectral range of 350-2500nm using a hyperspectral radiometer. Significant differences were found in green, near infrared and short wave infrared spectral regions for plants with early stages of P. solenopsis infestation, and for plants showing higher grades of infestation these differences extended to all the regions except blue. A significant reduction in total chlorophyll (12.83-35.83%) and relative water content (1.93-23.49%) was observed in the infested plants. Reflectance sensitivity analysis of the hyperspectral data revealed wavelengths centered at 492, 550, 674, 768 and 1454nm as most sensitive to mealybug damage. Mealybug Stress Indices (MSIs) were developed using two or three wavelengths, tested using multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis and compared with other indices published earlier. Results showed that the MSIs were superior (R2=0.82) to all other spectral vegetation indices tested. Further, the proposed MLR models corresponding to each MSIs were validated using two independent field data sets. The overall percent correct classification of cotton plants into different mealybug damage severity grades was in the range of 38.3 and 54.9. High classification accuracy for grade-1 (81.8%) showed that models are capable of early detection of mealybug damage. Results of this study could suggest potential usage of remote sensing in monitoring spatial and temporal distribution of the solenopsis mealybug, and thereby enable effective planning and implementation of site-specific pest management practices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Rumbos C.I.,University of Thessaly | Khah E.M.,University of Thessaly | Sabir N.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Fifty two local Greek tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars and accessions and ten commercial nematode-resistant tomato cultivars and rootstocks were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions for resistance against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. All tested local tomato cultivars and accessions were susceptible to M. javanica. Conversely, the commercial root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivars significantly reduced galling and egg mass production of M. javanica. Depending on the inoculum level (200 or 400 second stage juveniles (J2) per plant), the tested tomato rootstocks showed a different response to M. javanica. When plants were inoculated with 200 M. javanica J2 a significantly lower number of galls and egg masses was recorded for all tested rootstocks in comparison to that of the control 6 weeks after inoculation. Plant inoculation with 400 M. javanica J2 resulted in reduced root galling on the non-grafted rootstock Multifort 6 weeks after inoculation, whereas a significantly lower gall index was recorded for all non-grafted rootstocks and the grafted rootstocks Multifort and Unifort 12 weeks after inoculation.


Yadav M.S.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Ahmad N.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Singh S.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Yadava D.K.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2011 on integrated management of Sclerotinia rot of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czerns & Coss.) involving Trichoderma mixture (T. viride + T. hamatum) formulation (2×109 cfu/g) through seed treatment (10 g/kg), soil application (2.5 kg/ha) pre-incubated in farmyard manure and foliar sprays (0.2%) at 50 and 70 days after sowing along with improved cultural practices at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, which reduced the disease incidence up to a minimum of 11.1% and increased the seed yield up to a maximum of 2.72 tonnes/ha as compared to control (disease incidence 26.9% and seed yield 1.77 tonnes/ha). Validation of management practices were also undertaken during 2008 to 2011 in farmer's participatory mode under three different agro climates, Zone 1b and 3b in Rajasthan and south-west zone in Haryana. The validation studies revealed that integrated management strategies based on Trichoderma resulted in minimum Sclerotinia rot incidence (mean values of three regions 5.6%) and maximum seed yield (2.19 tonnes/ha) as compared to garlic clove extract (mean values 10.3% and seed yield 1.90 tonnes/ ha) and Farmers' practices (mean values 19.2% and seed yield 1.66 tonnes/ha). Integrated management strategies based on Trichoderma spp. was found economically viable as indicated by incremental cost: benefit ratio ranging from 1:3.1 to 1:3.8 that was different with garlic clove extract (1:1.2 to 1:2.0), besides mustard seed was produced without any application of toxic fungicides.


Sabir N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sabir N.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Singh B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Protected cultivation of high value vegetables and cut-flowers has shown tremendous potential during the last decade or so. With the progress of liberalized economy and the advent of newer technologies in agriculture, protected cultivation opens up avenues in agriculture hitherto not seen. These technologies are not only creating avenues at higher level but also to the growers with the smaller landholdings as the higher productivity levels retain economic relevance to agriculture. Protected cultivation is in a way precise, progressive and parallel agriculture encompassing virtually all facets of agriculture and rather under additional scrutiny of technical relevance to situations and grower and market economics. Since protected cultivation is a vast assembly of diverse aspects of agriculture, this review is an effort to bring its current status in global arena covering various components of this important and emerging field of horticulture. Apart from the status, technological components and methodologies, review also discusses principal vegetables like tomato, cucumber, capsicum and lettuce in brief, besides a good amount of treatise on key pests and plant protection strategies in greenhouses.


Birah A.,Central Agricultural Research Institute | Birah A.,National Center for Integrated Pest Management | Simhachalam P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute | Ganeshan S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Fruit flies belonging to the family Dacinae, are biologically interesting and economically very important group of Diptera, as are known to infest a wide range of plant species especially fruits and vegetable crops. The present work was aimed for molecular profiling of fruit fly (Bactrocera sp) which is abundantly found in South Andaman. Though number of Bactrocera species has been reported to exist in these islands, Bactrocera cucurbitae is the most serious pest of cucurbit plants. Bactrocera sp is widely spread all over the world causing 85 -100 % damage to vegetable and fruits. Taxonomical diagnosis based on morphological characters could not discriminate them and all were found to be similar morphologically. During the course of this investigation, efforts were made to assess genetic similarities among these collections by using RAPD-PCR involving nine primers. The dendrogram of all primers depicted two major clusters which were having 60% similarity within as well as species. This shows a bright possibility of the use of RAPD-PCR in molecular profiling and identification of Bactrocera species of Andaman Islands.

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