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Gavidia C.M.,National Major San Marcos University | Verastegui M.R.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Garcia H.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Lopez-Urbina T.,National Major San Marcos University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs.Methodology/Principal Findings:In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ≤8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1-2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands.Conclusions/Significance:The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. © 2013 Gavidia et al. Source


Lima-Junior J.C.,Institute Oswaldo Cruz | Banic D.M.,Institute Oswaldo Cruz | Tran T.M.,Emory University | Meyer V.S.E.,Emory University | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein (PvMSP9) stimulates both cellular and humoral immune responses in individuals who are naturally infected by this parasite species. To identify immunodominant human T-cell epitopes in PvMSP9, we used the MHC class II binding peptide prediction algorithm ProPred. Eleven synthetic peptides representing predicted putative promiscuous T-cell epitopes were tested in IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISPOT assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from 142 individuals from Rondonia State, Brazil who had been naturally exposed to P. vivax infections. To determine whether the predicted epitopes are preferentially recognized in the context of multiple alleles, MHC Class II typing of the cohort was also performed. Five synthetic peptides elicited robust cellular responses, and the overall frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4 responders to at least one of the promiscuous peptides were 62% and 46%, respectively. The frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4 responders to each peptide were not associated with a particular HLA-DRB1 allelic group since most of the peptides induced a response in individuals of 12 out of 13 studied allelic groups. The prediction of promiscuous epitopes using ProPred led to the identification of immunodominant epitopes recognized by PBMC from a significant proportion of a genetically heterogeneous population exposed to malaria infections. The combination of several such T-cell epitopes in a vaccine construct may increase the frequency of responders and the overall efficacy of subunit vaccines in genetically distinct populations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lima-Junior J.C.,Institute Oswaldo Cruz | Jiang J.,Emory University | Rodrigues-da-Silva R.N.,Institute Oswaldo Cruz | Banic D.M.,Institute Oswaldo Cruz | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

The Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-3α (PvMSP-3α) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate. However, the detailed investigations of the type of immune responses induced in naturally exposed populations are necessary. Therefore, we aim to characterize the naturally induced antibody to PvMSP-3α in 282 individuals with different levels of exposure to malaria infections residents in Brazilian Amazon. PvMSP3 specific antibodies (IgA, IgG and IgG subclass) to five recombinant proteins and the epitope mapping by Spot-synthesis technique to full-protein sequence of amino acids (15aa sequence with overlapping sequence of 9aa) were performed. Our results indicates that PvMSP3 is highly immunogenic in naturally exposed populations, where 78% of studied individuals present IgG immune response against the full-length recombinant protein (PVMSP3-FL) and IgG subclass profile was similar to all five recombinant proteins studied with a high predominance of IgG1 and IgG3. We also observe that IgG and subclass levels against PvMSP3 are associated with malaria exposure. The PvMSP3 epitope mapping by Spot-synthesis shows a natural recognition of at least 15 antigenic determinants, located mainly in the two blocks of repeats, confirming the high immunogenicity of this region. In conclusion, PvMSP-3α is immunogenic in naturally exposed individuals to malaria infections and that antibodies to PvMSP3 are induced to several B cell epitopes. The presence of PvMSP3 cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3), suggests that this mechanism could also occur in P. vivax. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Garcia H.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Gonzalez A.E.,National Major San Marcos University | Tsang V.C.W.,National Center for Infectious Diseases | Tsang V.C.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 12 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. METHODS: We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. RESULTS: Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all the villages in which mass antiparasitic treatment plus vaccination was implemented. After the final strategy was implemented in phase 3, a total of 3 of 342 pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 105 of 107 villages. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the transmission of T. solium infection was interrupted on a regional scale in a highly endemic region in Peru. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Kostoff R.N.,Mitre Corporation | Morse S.A.,National Center for Infectious Diseases
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence from the open source global SARS research literature. A SARS-focused query was applied to the Science Citation Index (SCI) (SCI 2008) database for the period 1998-early 2008. The SARS research literature infrastructure (prolific authors, key journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/journals/documents) was obtained using bibliometrics, and the SARS research literature technical structure (hierarchical taxonomy) was obtained using computational linguistics/document clustering. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

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