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Mladenova Z.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Mladenova Z.,Public Health England | Nawaz S.,Public Health England | Ganesh B.,Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases | Iturriza-Gomara M.,University of Liverpool
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Rotavirus severe disease in children is now vaccine-preventable and the roll-out of vaccination programs globally is expected to make a significant impact in the reduction of morbidity and mortality in children <5. years of age. Rotavirus is also a pathogen of other mammals and birds, and its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human population via interspecies transmission and reassortment events. Despite the efficacy and impact of rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe diarrhea, the correlates of protection remain largely unknown. Therefore, rotavirus strain surveillance before, during and after the introduction of immunization programs remains a crucial for monitoring rotavirus vaccine efficacy and impact. In this context, molecular characterization of 1323 Bulgarian rotavirus strains collected between June 2010 and May 2013 was performed. A total of 17 strains of interest were analyzed by partial sequence analysis. Twelve strains were characterized as G3P[9] and G6P[9] of potential animal origin. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with the same specificity strains detected sporadically between 2006 and 2010 revealed the constant circulation of these unusual human strains in Bulgaria, although in low prevalence, and their increased potential for person-to-person spread. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Heyman P.,Research Laboratory for Vector Borne Diseases | Ceianu C.S.,Cantacuzino Institute | Christova I.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Tordo N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 24 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2011

Hantavirus infections are reported from many countries in Europe and with highly variable annual case numbers. In 2010, more than 2,000 human cases were reported in Germany, and numbers above the baseline have also been registered in other European countries. Depending on the virus type human infections are characterised by mild to severe forms of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The member laboratories of the European Network for diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases present here an overview of the progression of human cases in the period from 2005 to 2010. Further we provide an update on the available diagnostic methods and endemic regions in their countries, with an emphasis on occurring virus types and reservoirs.


Steyer A.,University of Ljubljana | Bajzelj M.,University of Ljubljana | Iturriza-Gomara M.,Public Health England | Mladenova Z.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2010

Background:Rotavirus G10 genotype is one of the main rotaviruses circulating in cattle throughout the world but is also found in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections in children, and thought to be acquired through zoonotic transmission. Objectives: To determine the genetic diversity of G10P[14] rotavirus strains detected in various regions in Slovenia during a study on the molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses conducted in 2007. Study design: Five G10P[14] rotavirus strains detected in Slovenia in 2007 were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding VP7, NSP4 and partial VP4 (VP8*) and VP6 rotavirus proteins. Results: Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the four genes analyzed revealed a significant genetic diversity. Overall, the Slovenian G10P[14] are divided into two phylogenetic lineages. Conclusions: These results suggest that the G10P[14] strains found in Slovenian children did not emerge from a common source but possibly result of at least two independent zoonotic transmissions. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison with sequence data available in GenBank points towards a bovine origin to these strains. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Iturriza-Gomara M.,Center for Infections | Dallman T.,Bioinformatics Unit Statistics | Banyai K.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Bottiger B.,Statens Serum Institute | And 27 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

EuroRotaNet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in Europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. This report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the European population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Furthermore, the ability of the network to identify strains circulating with an incidence of ≥1% allowed the identification of possible emerging strains such as G8 and G12 since the beginning of the study; analysis of recent data indicates their increased incidence. The introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in at least two of the participating countries, and partial vaccine coverage in some others may provide data on diversity driven by vaccine introduction and possible strain replacement in Europe. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.


Mladenova Z.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Buttinelli G.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Dikova A.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Stoyanova A.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

An aseptic meningitis outbreak emerged in two regions in Bulgaria in 2012 and echovirus 30 (E30) was established as the aetiological agent by cell culture isolation, serological test, and molecular-based techniques. A total of 157 patients with aseptic meningitis were investigated, of which 117 were confirmed as having E30-associated disease. Molecular analysis of 12 E30 isolates revealed 99-100% nucleotide and amino-acid identity between them and a close correlation with a Greek strain involved in an E30 outbreak in 2012. Children aged 5-14 years were mainly affected, which could reflect the absence of E30 epidemics in Bulgaria for a period of 11 years. The first case with E30 isolation (a 2-year-old patient from Plovdiv) was notified at the end of April 2012. This was most likely the index case, from which the spread of the virus started, causing sporadic cases first, which later led to an aseptic meningitis outbreak facilitated by person-to-person viral transmission. © Cambridge University Press 2013.

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