Time filter

Source Type

Heyman P.,Research Laboratory for Vector borne Diseases | Ceianu C.S.,Cantacuzino Institute | Christova I.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Tordo N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 24 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2011

Hantavirus infections are reported from many countries in Europe and with highly variable annual case numbers. In 2010, more than 2,000 human cases were reported in Germany, and numbers above the baseline have also been registered in other European countries. Depending on the virus type human infections are characterised by mild to severe forms of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The member laboratories of the European Network for diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases present here an overview of the progression of human cases in the period from 2005 to 2010. Further we provide an update on the available diagnostic methods and endemic regions in their countries, with an emphasis on occurring virus types and reservoirs.


Steyer A.,University of Ljubljana | Bajzelj M.,University of Ljubljana | Iturriza-Gomara M.,Public Health England | Mladenova Z.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2010

Background:Rotavirus G10 genotype is one of the main rotaviruses circulating in cattle throughout the world but is also found in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections in children, and thought to be acquired through zoonotic transmission. Objectives: To determine the genetic diversity of G10P[14] rotavirus strains detected in various regions in Slovenia during a study on the molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses conducted in 2007. Study design: Five G10P[14] rotavirus strains detected in Slovenia in 2007 were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding VP7, NSP4 and partial VP4 (VP8*) and VP6 rotavirus proteins. Results: Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the four genes analyzed revealed a significant genetic diversity. Overall, the Slovenian G10P[14] are divided into two phylogenetic lineages. Conclusions: These results suggest that the G10P[14] strains found in Slovenian children did not emerge from a common source but possibly result of at least two independent zoonotic transmissions. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison with sequence data available in GenBank points towards a bovine origin to these strains. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Mladenova Z.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Mladenova Z.,Public Health England | Nawaz S.,Public Health England | Ganesh B.,Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases | Iturriza-Gomara M.,University of Liverpool
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Rotavirus severe disease in children is now vaccine-preventable and the roll-out of vaccination programs globally is expected to make a significant impact in the reduction of morbidity and mortality in children <5. years of age. Rotavirus is also a pathogen of other mammals and birds, and its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human population via interspecies transmission and reassortment events. Despite the efficacy and impact of rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe diarrhea, the correlates of protection remain largely unknown. Therefore, rotavirus strain surveillance before, during and after the introduction of immunization programs remains a crucial for monitoring rotavirus vaccine efficacy and impact. In this context, molecular characterization of 1323 Bulgarian rotavirus strains collected between June 2010 and May 2013 was performed. A total of 17 strains of interest were analyzed by partial sequence analysis. Twelve strains were characterized as G3P[9] and G6P[9] of potential animal origin. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with the same specificity strains detected sporadically between 2006 and 2010 revealed the constant circulation of these unusual human strains in Bulgaria, although in low prevalence, and their increased potential for person-to-person spread. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Mladenova Z.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Buttinelli G.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Dikova A.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Stoyanova A.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

An aseptic meningitis outbreak emerged in two regions in Bulgaria in 2012 and echovirus 30 (E30) was established as the aetiological agent by cell culture isolation, serological test, and molecular-based techniques. A total of 157 patients with aseptic meningitis were investigated, of which 117 were confirmed as having E30-associated disease. Molecular analysis of 12 E30 isolates revealed 99-100% nucleotide and amino-acid identity between them and a close correlation with a Greek strain involved in an E30 outbreak in 2012. Children aged 5-14 years were mainly affected, which could reflect the absence of E30 epidemics in Bulgaria for a period of 11 years. The first case with E30 isolation (a 2-year-old patient from Plovdiv) was notified at the end of April 2012. This was most likely the index case, from which the spread of the virus started, causing sporadic cases first, which later led to an aseptic meningitis outbreak facilitated by person-to-person viral transmission. © Cambridge University Press 2013.


PubMed | University of Liverpool, Nihon University, Anna University, National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections are commonly asymptomatic but are also found in association with symptoms of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, or central nervous system. In order to study their distribution and genetic diversity in Bulgaria, specimens from 229 children aged <5years old hospitalized due to neurological manifestations (n=104) and acute gastroenteritis (n=125) were analyzed. Stool samples were tested using reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction toward the 5UTR region, and the HPeVs detected were identified by PCR directed to VP1 followed by sequencing. HPeV infection rates of 1.9% and 7.2% were found in children presented with neurological symptoms or with acute diarrhea, respectively. Four different HPeV genotypes, HPeV-3 (n=2), HPeV-5 (n=2), HPeV-8 (n=1) and HPeV-10 (n=1) were identified. All but two HPeVs were detected in acute diarrheal cases, while a single HPeV-3 strain and an HPeV-8 strain were detected in association with facial palsy and encephalitis, respectively. This is the first report of HPeV-8 and HPeV-10 in Europe.


Padeshki P.I.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Ivanov I.N.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Popov B.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Kantardjiev T.V.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

During a recent large tularemia outbreak in Bulgaria we found several cases that were remote from the main focus. One case had an unusual mode of transmission. A hunter acquired tularemia through a nail scratch from a buzzard (Buteo buteo) and consequently developed a typical ulceroglandular form of the disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods and successful cultivation. Comparative strain typing was performed by high-resolution multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). The isolated strain was identical to one of the outbreak genotypes. We consider that this case represents a bird-to-human transmission of F. tularensis. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009.


Benedetti F.,University of Trieste | Berti F.,University of Trieste | Budal S.,University of Trieste | Campaner P.,University of Trieste | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV-1 PR are still a key resource in the fight against AIDS. Here we describe the synthesis and biological activity of HIV-1 PR inhibitors based on four novel dihydroxyethylene isosteres of the Phe-Pro and Pro-Pro dipeptides. The isosteres, containing four stereogenic centers, were synthesized in high yield and excellent stereoselectivity via the cyclization of epoxy amines derived from α-amino acids. The inhibitors were assembled by coupling the isosteres with suitable flanking groups and were screened against recombinant HIV PR showing activities in the subnanomolar to micromolar range. Two Phe-Pro-based inhibitors active at the nanomolar level were further investigated: both inhibitors combine the ability to suppress HIV-1 replication in infected MT-2 cells with low cytotoxicity against the same cells, thereby displaying a high therapeutic index. These results demonstrate the potential of the new Phe-Pro dihydroxyethylene isostere as a core unit of powerful HIV-1 PR inhibitors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Komitova R.,Anna University | Nenova R.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Padeshki P.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Ivanov I.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2010

Introduction: Tularemia is an uncommon but potentially fatal zoonosis. A second outbreak of tularemia in Bulgaria, about 40 years after the first, occurred in 1997 in two western regions, near the Serbian border. In 2003 tularemia reemerged in the same foci. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in a tularemia resurgence in the Slivnitza region in 2003-2004. Methodology: A total of 26 cases were evaluated. Using medical records, the following data were collected for all patients: symptoms, physical signs, and microbiology results of agglutination tests, cultures and PCR assays. Results: Twenty-four of 26 suspected tularemia patients were laboratory confirmed by agglutination test and/or culture. Fifteen (57.7%) patients had clinical presentation compatible with oropharyngeal, 8 (30.8%) with glandular, and 3 (11.5%) with oculoglandular tularemia. The most frequent symptoms were swollen neck (84.6%) and sore throat (76.9%). Lymphadenopathy (100%) was the most common finding. Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis) was detected by PCR, providing a definitive diagnosis in 82.3% of the cases. All the patients were treated with antibiotics considered effective against F. tularensis; however, therapeutic failure was observed in 23.1% of the cases, which was related to a delay in the initiation of antibiotics. Conclusion: The tularemia outbreak in west Bulgaria near the Serbian border was probably food-borne, associated with a surge in the rodent population. The oropharyngeal form was the most common. Although the disease runs a benign course, late initiation of antimicrobial therapy might delay complete recovery. © 2010 Komitova et al.


Vatcheva-Dobrevska R.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Mulet X.,Hospital Universitario Son Espases | Ivanov I.,National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases | Zamorano L.,Hospital Universitario Son Espases | And 4 more authors.
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2013

A panel of 29 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from seven hospitals as part of a country-wide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Bulgarian hospitals was studied. Molecular typing through multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA6) yielded 23 different profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic tests for the detection of acquired carbapenemases yielded negative results in all cases. In contrast, 76% of the isolates produced other acquired β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Namely, 6 of the isolates (21%) produced a VEB-1 ESBL; 14 (48%) produced an OXA-10-type enzyme (7 OXA-10 and 7 OXA-10 ESBL variants, including 2 OXA-17 [A218G], 2 OXA-74 [C197T, A218G], and 3 OXA-142 [A218G, G470A]); 8 (28%) an OXA-2-type enzyme (all OXA-2); and 1 (3%) a PSE-1 carbenicillinase. Further analysis through multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that the six VEB-1-producing strains, recovered from four hospitals, belonged to ST111 or ST244 international high-risk clones. Additionally, nearly all of the isolates (97%) lacked OprD production, explaining carbapenem resistance. Overexpression of AmpC was documented in 5 (17%) of the isolates, including most of the MDR isolates not producing any acquired β-lactamase. Particularly noteworthy was the very high prevalence of MexXY-OprM overexpression, documented in 72% of the isolates, whereas the prevalence of MexAB-OprM overexpression was lower (21%). In summary, while the production of metallo-β-lactamases is uncommon among P. aeruginosa isolates from Bulgarian hospitals, MDR profiles frequently result from the production of ESBLs combined with the lack of production of the carbapenem porin OprD and the overexpression of the MexXY-OprM efflux pump. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) | Year: 2013

A panel of 29 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from seven hospitals as part of a country-wide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Bulgarian hospitals was studied. Molecular typing through multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA6) yielded 23 different profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic tests for the detection of acquired carbapenemases yielded negative results in all cases. In contrast, 76% of the isolates produced other acquired -lactamases, including extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). Namely, 6 of the isolates (21%) produced a VEB-1 ESBL; 14 (48%) produced an OXA-10-type enzyme (7 OXA-10 and 7 OXA-10 ESBL variants, including 2 OXA-17 [A218G], 2 OXA-74 [C197T, A218G], and 3 OXA-142 [A218G, G470A]); 8 (28%) an OXA-2-type enzyme (all OXA-2); and 1 (3%) a PSE-1 carbenicillinase. Further analysis through multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that the six VEB-1-producing strains, recovered from four hospitals, belonged to ST111 or ST244 international high-risk clones. Additionally, nearly all of the isolates (97%) lacked OprD production, explaining carbapenem resistance. Overexpression of AmpC was documented in 5 (17%) of the isolates, including most of the MDR isolates not producing any acquired -lactamase. Particularly noteworthy was the very high prevalence of MexXY-OprM overexpression, documented in 72% of the isolates, whereas the prevalence of MexAB-OprM overexpression was lower (21%). In summary, while the production of metallo--lactamases is uncommon among P. aeruginosa isolates from Bulgarian hospitals, MDR profiles frequently result from the production of ESBLs combined with the lack of production of the carbapenem porin OprD and the overexpression of the MexXY-OprM efflux pump.

Loading National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collaborators
Loading National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collaborators