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Dreier J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Vollmer T.,Ruhr University Bochum | Hinse D.,Ruhr University Bochum | Heuser E.J.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 2 more authors.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy | Year: 2016

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) can be transmitted by transfusion through infected blood components. In Germany, a 28-day deferral for blood donors of therapeutic blood components who had spent at least 2 days in WNV-endemic areas from June 1 to November 30, 2014 was enforced. Otherwise, screening of blood donors for WNV RNA or the application of pathogen reduction techniques are appropriate alternatives. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated NAT screening for the detection of WNV in blood components. A total of 58 minipools consisting of 357 individual blood donors were screened for the presence of WNV RNA employing an automated high-volume extraction method using the RealStar WNV RT-PCR Kit. Additionally, different WNV reference reagents were quantified to prove the status quo of standardization. Four different WNV real-time NAT kits were compared using samples of an external quality assessment panel. Results: The 95% lower detection limit of the WNV MP-NAT was determined to 30.2 copies/ml (95% CI 24.2-45.4 copies/ml). No WNV RNA-positive minipool was detected. Quantification of WNV reference reagents revealed shortcomings in standardization. Comparison of several WNV NAT assays showed considerable differences in assay sensitivities and particularly a missing detection of WNV lineage 2. Implementation of seasonal WNV MP-NAT screening was demonstrated. Conclusion: Actually, WNV infections in Germany are rare events introduced by returning travelers, but surveillance of these emerging infections is important for safety in blood supply. The validation study pointed out the need for standardization of WNV NAT because of current lack of an international standard for WNV RNA. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH. Source

Ianiro G.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Delogu R.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Bonomo P.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Castiglia P.,University of Sassari | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

In 2011, two children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis were hospitalized in Sardinia, Italy. Two RVA strains with G8P[4] genotype were detected in their stools, and were named SS56/2011 and SS65/2011. The aim of the study was to characterize these two rare strains, collected within a national RVA gastroenteritis surveillance program. Eight of the 11 RVA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed. VP7 amino acid sequence was also analyzed. Sequencing of genes encoding the VP4, VP6, VP7, and NSP1-5 proteins classified both strains as G8-P[4]-I2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, not detected previously in Italy. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most genes of Italian RVA strains were closely similar to typical DS-1 like strains circulating worldwide, whereas the VP7 gene was strictly related to G8 strains firstly reported in Africa. This finding of G8P[4] RVA strains with a DS-1 like genomic constellation also in a southern European country further confirms the wide circulation of this uncommon genotype in the world. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the VP7 capsid protein of the Italian G8P[4] RVA strains with sequences reported previously suggests that the G8 genotype should be divided into three major lineages. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Delogu R.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Lo Presti A.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Diseases | Ruggeri F.M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Cella E.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Diseases | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

The whole genome of a G8P[8] rotavirus from the 2006 epidemic in Croatia was sequenced and showed a Wa-like genotype constellation. Its VP7 gene clustered with DS-1-like G8 African rotaviruses and a G8P[4] German strain. Remaining genes clustered with contemporary Belgian G1P[8] rotaviruses, suggesting reassortment between human G8 and G1P[8] rotaviruses in Croatia or other European countries. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Ianiro G.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Heylen E.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Delogu R.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Zeller M.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | And 4 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

This study reports the molecular characterization of G9P[8] rotavirus strains from children with acute diarrhea identified in different cities of Italy, in 2007 and 2010. Seventeen samples exhibited a G9P[8] genotype by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR. Preliminary sequence analysis of the VP7 and VP8* encoding genes revealed nucleotide identities ranging between 96% and 100%. Full genome sequencing of four G9P[8] strains selected in different cities or years showed that the investigated Italian strains possessed a complete Wa-like genotype constellation. However, phylogenetic analyses assigned strains to different clusters reflecting point mutations and possibly earlier reassortment between Wa-like RVA strains. Deduced amino acid sequence of the VP7 and VP4 genes for the G9P[8] strains revealed at least five substitutions in relevant antigenic sites of both proteins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ianiro G.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Delogu R.,National Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation | Camilloni B.,University of Perugia | Lorini C.,University of Florence | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2013

Two rare G6 rotavirus A (RVA) strains, designated as RVA/human-wt/ITA/CEC06/2011/G6P[6] and RVA/human-wt/ITA/PG05/2011/G6P[9], were identified in stool specimens from children hospitalized in Central Italy. After PCR genotyping, the samples CEC06 and PG05 gave G-UD-P[6] and G-UD-P[9] genotypes, respectively. To determine the G-type and to characterize further the two strains, sequencing of 8 of the 11 genomic segments was performed. CEC06 and PG05 strains were found to possess unusual genotype constellations: G6-P[6]-I2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 and G6-P[9]-I2-A3-N2-T3-E3-H3, respectively. This study reports the first detection of rare G6P[6] and G6P[9] RVA strains in peninsular Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of VP4 (VP8*), VP7, VP6, and NSP1-5 showed no evidence of zoonosis or inter-species reassortment, revealing for both strains constellations previously associated to human cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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