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Marshall H.,A+ Network | Marshall H.,University of Adelaide | McMillan M.,A+ Network | McMillan M.,University of Adelaide | And 3 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2016

Maternal immunization has the potential to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the pregnant woman and her infant. Many countries now recommend immunization against influenza at any stage of pregnancy and against pertussis in the third trimester. Despite evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy, uptake generally remains low for influenza and moderate for pertussis vaccine. Enhancing confidence in both immunization providers and pregnant women by increasing the evidence-base for the safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy, improving communication and access by incorporating immunization into standard models of antenatal care are likely to improve uptake. Developing a framework for implementation of vaccines for pregnant women which is cognizant of local and national cultural, epidemiological, behavioral and societal factors will enable a smooth transition and high uptake for new vaccines currently in development for pregnant women. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Buttery J.P.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Buttery J.P.,Monash University | Lambert S.B.,University of Melbourne | Grimwood K.,University of Melbourne | And 7 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2011

Introduction: Rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded Australian National Immunization Program (NIP) in July 2007. Due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose RV1 (Rotarix, GSK) regimen or 3-dose RV5 (Rotateq, Merck/CSL) regimen. This allowed comparison of both vaccines in similar populations with high infant vaccination coverage. Methods: Admission and rotavirus identification data from the major pediatric hospitals in 3 states (2 using RV5, 1 RV1), together with state-based hospitalization and vaccination data from Queensland (RV5) were analyzed for the years before, and up to 30 months following rotavirus vaccine introduction. Emergency encounters and short-stay unit admissions for gastroenteritis are also described. Results: Rotavirus vaccine coverage in Australia is high, with 87% of infants receiving at least 1 dose. Hospital admissions for both rotavirus gastroenteritis and nonrotavirus-coded gastroenteritis were reduced following vaccine introduction in all states, not only for the age group eligible for NIP rotavirus vaccination, but also for children born prior. RV5 vaccine efficacy in Queensland has been estimated at 89.3%. Marked reductions in acute gastroenteritis emergency presentations and short-stay unit admissions have also been observed. Conclusions: Early evidence from the NIP in Australia has demonstrated high rotavirus coverage with both RV1 and RV5. The introduction of both vaccines has been associated with a marked reduction in gastroenteritis admissions, supportive of both direct vaccine protection, as well as with indirect herd protection. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Brotherton J.M.L.,A+ Network | Brotherton J.M.L.,National Center for Immunization Research and Surveillance | Tabrizi S.N.,A+ Network | Tabrizi S.N.,University of Melbourne | And 4 more authors.
Future Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aim: We used existing data to investigate whether prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) varies by age, in order to determine whether age specific baseline data is required as the prevaccination comparator for type-specific surveillance following HPV vaccination programs. Materials & Methods: We analyzed available Australian HPV typing data from 317 cervical smears from women with concurrent CIN3 on biopsy and conducted a review and analysis of the international literature. Results: Among 317 women with CIN3, HPV16 was detected in 70% of those 16-25 years old, 59% of 26-35-year-olds and 48% of >36-year-olds (p = 0.025). This association took the form of a trend with decreasing HPV16 prevalence with increasing age (p = 0.007). That HPV16 is commoner in younger women with high-grade cervical lesions was consistent with all but one study of 18 identified in the literature. Conclusion: In screened populations, younger women with CIN3 are more likely to have HPV16 detected. To make valid pre- and post-vaccination comparisons, surveillance specimens for HPV typing should be both age stratified and lesion specific. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

MacIntyre C.R.,University of New South Wales | MacIntyre C.R.,National Center for Immunization Research and Surveillance | Wang Q.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Rahman B.,University of New South Wales | And 10 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: We compared the efficacy of medical masks (MM) and N95 respirators (N95) in preventing bacterial colonization/infection in healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: A cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 1441 hospital HCWs randomized to medical masks or N95 respirators, and compared to 481 control HCWs, was performed in Beijing, China, during the winter season of 2008-2009. Participants were followed for development of clinical respiratory illness (CRI). Symptomatic subjects were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenza type B by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The rate of bacterial colonization was 2.8% in the N95 group (p = 0.02), 5.3% among medical mask users (p. <. 0.01) and 7.5% among the controls (p = 0.16). N95 respirators were significantly protective (adjusted RR 0.34, 95% CI: 0.21-0.56) against bacterial colonization. Co-infections of two bacteria or a virus and bacteria occurred in up to 3.7% of HCWs, and were significantly lower in the N95 arm. Conclusions: N95 respirators were significantly protective against bacterial colonization, co-colonization and viral-bacterial co-infection. We showed that dual respiratory virus or bacterial-viral co-infections can be reduced by the use of N95 respirators. This study has occupational health and safety implications for health workers. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Britton P.N.,Sydney Medical School | Britton P.N.,University of Sydney | Dale R.C.,Sydney Medical School | Nissen M.D.,Royal Childrens Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcome of human parechovirus (HPeV) encephalitis cases identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study. METHODS: Infants with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals through the (ACE) study. Cases of confirmed HPeV infection had comprehensive demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome at discharge data reviewed by an expert panel and were categorized by using predetermined case definitions. Twelve months after discharge, neurodevelopment was assessed by using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). RESULTS: We identified thirteen cases of suspected encephalitis with HPeV infection between May 2013 and December 2014. Nine infants had confirmed encephalitis; median age was 13 days, including a twin pair. All had HPeV detected in cerebrospinal fluid with absent pleocytosis. Most were girls (7), admitted to ICU (8), and had seizures (8). Many were born preterm (5). Seven patients had white matter diffusion restriction on MRI; 3 with normal cranial ultrasounds. At discharge, 3 of 9 were assessed to have sequelae; however, at 12 months' follow-up, by using the ASQ, 5 of 8 infants showed neurodevelopmental sequelae: 3 severe (2 cerebral palsy, 1 central visual impairment). A further 2 showed concern in gross motor development. CONCLUSIONS: Children with HPeV encephalitis were predominantly young, female infants with seizures and diffusion restriction on MRI. Cranial ultrasound is inadequately sensitive. HPeV encephalitis is associated with neurodevelopmental sequelae despite reassuring short-term outcomes. Given the absent cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and need for specific testing, HPeV could be missed as a cause of neonatal encephalopathy and subsequent cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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