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Tiwari T.S.P.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Baughman A.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Clark T.A.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: American infants are at highest risk of severe pertussis and death. We investigated the role of ≥1 pertussis vaccinations in preventing pertussis-related deaths and risk markers for death among infants aged,42 days. METHODS: We analyzed characteristics of fatal and nonfatal infant pertussis cases reported nationally during 1991-2008. Infants were categorized into 2 age groups on the basis of eligibility to receive a first pertussis vaccine dose at age 6 weeks; dose 1 was considered valid if given ≥14 days before illness onset. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of ≥1 pertussis vaccine doses on outcome and risk markers. RESULTS: Pertussis-related deaths occurred among 258 of 45 404 cases. Fatal and nonfatal cases were confirmed by culture (54% vs 49%) and polymerase chain reaction (31% vs 27%). All deaths occurred before age 34 weeks at illness onset; 64% occurred before age 6 weeks. Among infants aged ≥42 days, receiving ≥1 doses of vaccine protected against death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.74), hospitalization (aOR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.63-0.77), and pneumonia (aOR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68-0.95). Risk was elevated for Hispanic ethnicity (aOR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.36-3.83) and American Indian/Alaska Native race (aOR: 5.15; 95% CI: 2.37-11.2) and lower for recommended antibiotic treatment (aOR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.16-0.47). Among infants aged <42 days, risk was elevated for Hispanic ethnicity and lower with recommended antibiotic use. CONCLUSIONS: The first pertussis vaccine dose and antibiotic treatment protect against death, hospitalization, and pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Nuorti J.P.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Whitney C.G.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | Year: 2010

On February 24, 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13 [Prevnar 13, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., marketed by Pfizer Inc.]) was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused among infants and young children by the 13 pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine and for prevention of otitis media caused by serotypes also covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulation (PCV7 [Prevnar, Wyeth]). PCV13 contains the seven serotypes included in PCV7 (serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and six additional serotypes (serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A). PCV13 is approved for use among children aged 6 weeks-71 months and supersedes PCV7, which was licensed by FDA in 2000. This report summarizes recommendations approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on February 24, 2010, for the use of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal disease in infants and young children aged <6 years. Recommendations include 1) routine vaccination of all children aged 2-59 months, 2) vaccination of children aged 60-71 months with underlying medical conditions, and 3) vaccination of children who received ≥1 dose of PCV7 previously (CDC. Licensure of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13] and recommendations for use among children-Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2010. MMWR 2010;59:258-61). Recommendations also are provided for targeted use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23, formerly PPV23) in children aged 2-18 years with underlying medical conditions that increase their risk for contracting pneumococcal disease or experiencing complications of pneumococcal disease if infected. The ACIP recommendation for routine vaccination with PCV13 and the immunization schedules for children aged ≤59 months who have not received any previous PCV7 or PCV13 doses are the same as those published previously for PCV7 (CDC. Preventing pneumococcal disease among infants and young children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2000;49[No. RR-9]; CDC. Updated recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] for use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV7] in children aged 24-59 months who are not completely vaccinated. MMWR 2008;57:343-4), with PCV13 replacing PCV7 for all doses. For routine immunization of infants, PCV13 is recommended as a 4-dose series at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months. Infants and children who have received ≥1 dose of PCV7 should complete the immunization series with PCV13. A single supplemental dose of PCV13 is recommended for all children aged 14-59 months who have received 4 doses of PCV7 or another age-appropriate, complete PCV7 schedule. For children who have underlying medical conditions, a supplemental PCV13 dose is recommended through age 71 months. Children aged 2-18 years with underlying medical conditions also should receive PPSV23 after completing all recommended doses of PCV13.

Leung J.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

We describe a death in a 15-mo-old girl who developed a varicella-like rash 20 d after varicella vaccination that lasted for 2 mo despite acyclovir treatment. The rash was confirmed to be due to vaccine-strain varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This is the first case of fatal varicella due to vaccine-strain VZV reported from the United States. The patient developed severe respiratory complications that worsened with each new crop of varicella lesions; vaccine-strain VZV was detected in the bronchial lavage specimen. Sepsis and multi-organ failure led to death. The patient did not have a previously diagnosed primary immune deficiency, but her failure to thrive and repeated hospitalizations early in life (starting at 5 mo) for presumed infections and respiratory compromise treated with corticosteroids were suggestive of a primary or acquired immune deficiency. Providers should monitor for adverse reactions after varicella vaccination. If severe adverse events develop, acyclovir should be administered as soon as possible. The possibility of acyclovir resistance and use of foscarnet should be considered if lesions do not improve after 10 d of treatment (or if they become atypical [e.g., verrucous]). Experience with use of varicella vaccine indicates that the vaccine has an excellent safety profile and that serious adverse events are very rare and mostly described in immunocompromised patients. The benefit of vaccination in preventing severe disease and mortality outweigh the low risk of severe events occurring after vaccination.

Wikswo M.E.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002) | Year: 2012

Approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) occur in the United States each year, and outbreaks of AGE are a substantial public health problem. Although CDC has conducted national surveillance for waterborne and foodborne AGE outbreaks since 1971 and 1973, respectively, no national surveillance existed for AGE outbreaks resulting primarily from person-to-person transmission before implementation of the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) in 2009. 2009-2010. NORS is a national surveillance system launched in 2009 to support the reporting of all waterborne outbreaks and enteric disease outbreaks from foodborne, person-to-person, animal contact, environmental, and unknown modes of transmission. State and local public health agencies in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, five U.S. territories, and three Freely Associated States report these outbreaks to CDC via NORS using a standardized online data entry system. Data are collected on general outbreak characteristics (e.g., dates, number of illnesses, and locations), demographic characteristics of cases (e.g., age and sex), symptoms, case outcomes, and laboratory testing information and results. Only outbreaks reported in NORS with a primary mode of transmission of person-to-person contact are included in this report. During 2009-2010, a total of 2,259 person-to-person AGE outbreaks were reported in NORS from 42 states and the District of Columbia. These outbreaks resulted in 81,491 reported illnesses, 1,339 hospitalizations, and 136 deaths. No etiology was reported in approximately 40% (n = 840) of outbreaks. Of the remaining 1,419 outbreaks with a reported etiology, 1,270 (89%) were either suspected or confirmed to be caused solely by norovirus. Other reported etiologies included Shigella (n = 86), Salmonella (n = 16), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (n = 11), and rotavirus (n = 10). Most (82%) of the 1,723 outbreaks caused by norovirus or an unknown etiology occurred during the winter months, and outbreaks caused by Shigella or another suspected or confirmed etiology most often occurred during the spring or summer months (62%, N = 53 and 60%, N = 38, respectively). A setting was reported for 1,187 (53%) of total outbreaks. Among these reported settings, nursing homes and other long-term-care facilities were most common (80%), followed by childcare centers (6%), hospitals (5%), and schools (5%). NORS provides the first national data on AGE outbreaks spread primarily through person-to-person transmission and describes the frequency of this mode of transmission. Norovirus is the most commonly reported cause of these outbreaks and, on the basis of epidemiologic characteristics, likely accounts for a substantial portion of the reported outbreaks of unknown etiology. In the United States, sporadic and outbreak-associated norovirus causes an estimated 800 deaths and 70,000 hospitalizations annually, which could increase by an additional 50% during epidemic years. During 2009-2010, norovirus outbreaks accounted for the majority of deaths and health-care visits in person-to-person AGE outbreaks reported to NORS. Prevention and control of person-to-person AGE outbreaks depend primarily on appropriate hand hygiene and isolation of ill persons. NORS surveillance data can help identify the etiologic agents, settings, and populations most often involved in AGE outbreaks resulting primarily from person-to-person transmission and guide development of targeted interventions to avert these outbreaks or mitigate the spread of infection. Surveillance for person-to-person AGE outbreaks via NORS also might be important in clarifying the epidemiology and role of certain pathogens (e.g., STEC) that have been traditionally considered foodborne but can also be transmitted person-to-person. As ongoing improvements and enhancements to NORS are introduced, participation in NORS has the potential to increase, allowing for improved estimation of epidemic person-to-person AGE and its relative importance among other modes of transmission.

Bowzard J.B.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Ranjan P.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Sambhara S.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2013

It is currently unclear at which point during viral replication that RNA genomes are first recognized as nonself by the immune system. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Weber et al. show that incoming nucleocapsid-bound genomes are sufficient to bind and activate innate immune sensors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Cohn A.C.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Harrison L.H.,University of Pittsburgh
Drugs | Year: 2013

Since the introduction of the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines in 1999, remarkable progress has been made in reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by meningococcal disease. Currently, varying meningococcal conjugate vaccines provide protection against serogroups A, C, Y, and W meningococcal disease. A large impact has been seen after vaccine introduction, particularly in the UK after vaccinating all 1-17 year olds. The introduction of serogroup A conjugate vaccine in the meningitis belt has the potential to control epidemics of disease that disproportionately affect this area of the world. Issues remain that require continued vigilance with disease surveillance and frequent reassessment of vaccine strategies. These issues include duration of protection, potential increases in non-vaccine serogroups, and vaccine safety and potential interference with other routine vaccines. Serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are protein-based vaccines, with the first approved in early 2013. Understanding the potential impact of serogroup B vaccines is critical to developing future meningococcal vaccination strategies. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Smith P.J.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Singleton J.A.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | Year: 2011

Problem/Condition: Estimated trends in county-level vaccination coverage compared with national health objectives and associated with other variables (e.g., access to care, economic conditions, and demographic characteristics) have not been reported previously. Reporting Period: 1995-2008. Description of System: The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is an ongoing, random-digit-dialed telephone survey that gathers vaccination coverage data from households with children aged 19-35 months in 50 states and selected urban areas and territories. Results: During 1995-2008, 185,336 children aged 19-35 months sampled by NIS had adequate provider data and lived in one of the 257 counties where the combined sample size for at least one of the seven biennial periods during 1995-2008 was ≥35. Statistically significant increases in estimated vaccination coverage occurred in 27 of 233 counties (12%) with ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP); for 38 of 233 counties (16%) with ≥3 doses of polio vaccine; eight of 233 counties (3%) with ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); nine of 233 counties (4%) with ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine; 193 of 233 counties (83%) with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine; 228 of 232 counties (98%) with ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine; and 187 of 192 counties (97%) with ≥4 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Six of 233 (2%) counties had significant decreases in vaccination coverage for Hib. During the 2007-2008 biennial period, the percentage of 193 counties with estimated vaccine coverage that achieved the Healthy People 2010 objective of 90% vaccination coverage was 8% for DTaP/DTP vaccines, 93% for polio vaccine, 86% for MMR vaccine, 71% Hib vaccine, 94% for hepatitis B vaccine, 50% for varicella vaccine, and <1% for PCV7. Among 104 counties, the estimated percentage of children aged 6-23 months who were administered ≥1 dose of the seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2007-2008 influenza vaccination season was 39.0% (range: 22.2%-68.8%). For most vaccines and vaccine series, higher levels of county-level vaccination coverage correlated with a higher number of pediatricians per capita, a higher number of people living in group quarters (e.g., college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, workers' dormitories, and facilities for persons experiencing homelessness) per capita, higher per capita income, a higher number of Hispanics per capita, and having a service-dependent economy. Lower levels of county-level vaccination coverage correlated with higher number of persons in poverty per capita, a higher percentage of black children among children aged <5 years, higher levels of housing stress (i.e., ≥30% income for rent or mortgage and certain inadequate housing characteristics), a higher number of pediatric intensive care beds per capita, and designation as a nonmetropolitan county with an economy dependent on recreation activities. Interpretation: During 1995-2008, significant increases in vaccination coverage for individual vaccines occurred in many counties for the newly recommended vaccines, varicella and PCV7. Public Health Actions: In counties that did not meet the Healthy People 2010 vaccination coverage objectives, states should evaluate strategies to achieve these objectives. The Guide to Community Preventive Services provides a summary of interventions that increase community vaccination coverage, including provider reminder-recall systems that remind parents to return to clinics to administer missed doses to children and assessment and feedback on the performance of vaccination providers. In counties where significant decreases in Hib vaccination coverage occurred, additional research is warranted to determine whether the recent shortage in the Hib vaccine was the sole cause of these decreases. In counties with a high proportion of children living in poverty, interventions to increase vaccination coverage among these children are needed. Additional research is required to understand potential barriers to increased coverage with these vaccines, the role of vaccination providers and their resource constraints, and factors associated with access to health care among children.

Fiore A.E.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
MMWR. Surveillance summaries : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries / CDC | Year: 2011

This report updates previous recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of antiviral agents for the prevention and treatment of influenza (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2008;57[No. RR-7]).This report contains information on treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza virus infection and provides a summary of the effectiveness and safety of antiviral treatment medications. Highlights include recommendations for use of 1) early antiviral treatment of suspected or confirmed influenza among persons with severe influenza (e.g., those who have severe, complicated, or progressive illness or who require hospitalization); 2) early antiviral treatment of suspected or confirmed influenza among persons at higher risk for influenza complications; and 3) either oseltamivir or zanamivir for persons with influenza caused by 2009 H1N1 virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus, or influenza B virus or when the influenza virus type or influenza A virus subtype is unknown; 4) antiviral medications among children aged <1 year; 5) local influenza testing and influenza surveillance data, when available, to help guide treatment decisions; and 6) consideration of antiviral treatment for outpatients with confirmed or suspected influenza who do not have known risk factors for severe illness, if treatment can be initiated within 48 hours of illness onset. Additional information is available from CDC's influenza website at http://www.cdc.gov/flu, including any updates or supplements to these recommendations that might be required during the 2010-11 influenza season. Health-care providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information. Recommendations related to the use of vaccines for the prevention of influenza during the 2010-11 influenza season have been published previously (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2010. MMWR 2010;59[No. RR-8]).

Verani J.R.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | McGee L.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases | Schrag S.J.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | Year: 2010

Despite substantial progress in prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease since the 1990s, GBS remains the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. In 1996, CDC, in collaboration with relevant professional societies, published guidelines for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (CDC. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: a public health perspective. MMWR 1996;45[No. RR-7]); those guidelines were updated and republished in 2002 (CDC. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: revised guidelines from CDC. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-11]). In June 2009, a meeting of clinical and public health representatives was held to reevaluate prevention strategies on the basis of data collected after the issuance of the 2002 guidelines. This report presents CDC's updated guidelines, which have been endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Society for Microbiology. The recommendations were made on the basis of available evidence when such evidence was sufficient and on expert opinion when available evidence was insufficient. The key changes in the 2010 guidelines include the following: • expanded recommendations on laboratory methods for the identification of GBS, • clarification of the colony-count threshold required for reporting GBS detected in the urine of pregnant women, • updated algorithms for GBS screening and intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes, • a change in the recommended dose of penicillin-G for chemoprophylaxis, • updated prophylaxis regimens for women with penicillin allergy, and • a revised algorithm for management of newborns with respect to risk for early-onset GBS disease. Universal screening at 35-37 weeks' gestation for maternal GBS colonization and use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in substantial reductions in the burden of early-onset GBS disease among newborns. Although early-onset GBS disease has become relatively uncommon in recent years, the rates of maternal GBS colonization (and therefore the risk for early-onset GBS disease in the absence of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis) remain unchanged since the 1970s. Continued efforts are needed to sustain and improve on the progress achieved in the prevention of GBS disease. There also is a need to monitor for potential adverse consequences of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (e.g., emergence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance or increased incidence or severity of non-GBS neonatal pathogens). In the absence of a licensed GBS vaccine, universal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of early-onset GBS disease prevention.

Cohn A.C.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control | Year: 2013

Meningococcal disease describes the spectrum of infections caused by Neisseria meningiditis, including meningitdis, bacteremia, and bacteremic pneumonia. Two quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines that provide protection against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY-D [Menactra, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc., Swiftwater, Pennsylvania] and MenACWY-CRM [Menveo, manufactured by Novartis Vaccines, Cambridge, Massachusetts]) are licensed in the United States for use among persons aged 2 through 55 years. MenACWY-D also is licensed for use among infants and toddlers aged 9 through 23 months. Quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4 [Menommune, manufactured by sanofi pasteur, Inc., Swiftwater, Pennsylvania]) is the only vaccine licensed for use among persons aged ≥56 years. A bivalent meningococcal polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccine that provides protection against meningococcal serogroups C and Y along with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (Hib-MenCY-TT [MenHibrix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium]) is licensed for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months. This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of meningococcal disease in the United States, specifically the changes in the recommendations published since 2005 (CDC. Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2005;54 [No. RR-7]). As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations; it is intended for use by clinicians as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) for adolescents aged 11 or 12 years, with a booster dose at age 16 years. ACIP also recommends routine vaccination for persons at increased risk for meningococcal disease (i.e., persons who have persistent complement component deficiencies, persons who have anatomic or functional asplenia, microbiologists who routinely are exposed to isolates of N. meningitidis, military recruits, and persons who travel to or reside in areas in which meningococcal disease is hyperendemic or epidemic). Guidelines for antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis and for evaluation and management of suspected outbreaks of meningococcal disease also are provided.

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