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Jayasinghe S.,National Center for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases | Jayasinghe S.,University of Sydney | Menzies R.,University of New South Wales | Chiu C.,National Center for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2017

Background. Australia introduced universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) from 2005, replaced by 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2011, uniquely among high-income countries giving doses at 2, 4, and 6 months (3 + 0 schedule). Data on impact of a timely 3 + 0 PCV schedule with high coverage are sparse, with none for PCV13. Methods. We used national surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from 2002 for baseline and appropriate later comparison periods to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by serotype and age using a Poisson model. PCV coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. Results. After 9 years of timely 3-dose PCV coverage of >92%, all-age IPD in Australia almost halved (IRR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], .50-.57), but differed by PCV era. Reductions in IPD due to vaccine serotypes from PCV7 (IRR, 0.20; CI, .17-.22) were about 2-fold greater than for IPD due to extra serotypes in PCV13 (13v-non7v) in a similar period (IRR, 0.58; CI, .51-.66). Post- PCV13 declines in serotype 19A IPD in persons aged <2 years (IRR, 0.23; CI, .13-.35) and ≥2 years (IRR, 0.35; CI, .28-.44) differed from other 13v-non7v IPD (IRR, 0.73; CI, .35-1.48 for those aged <2 years and IRR, 0.96; CI, .81-1.15 for those ≥2 years). Meningitis due to vaccine serotypes nearly disappeared in children eligible for 3 PCV13 doses. IPD due to non-PCV13 serotypes increased by 30% compared with 76% for non-PCV7 serotypes in equivalent period of vaccine use. Conclusions. Reductions in vaccine-type IPD post-PCV13 were inferior to Australian experience with PCV7 and reports from high-income countries giving a PCV booster dose. Applicability of findings to other settings would depend on age of IPD onset, serotype profile, and timeliness of vaccination.


Jayasinghe S.,National Center for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases | Jayasinghe S.,University of Sydney | Chiu C.,National Center for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases | Chiu C.,University of Sydney | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Background: High incidence and serotype diversity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Indigenous children in remote Australia led to rapid introduction of 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) at 2, 4 and 6 months in 2001, followed by 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV) in the second year of life. All other Australian children were offered 3 doses of 7vPCV without a booster from 2005. This study evaluated the impact of the unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule of 7vPCV followed by the 23vPPV booster among Indigenous Australian children. Methods: Changes in IPD incidence derived from population-based passive laboratory surveillance in Indigenous children <5 years eligible for 23vPPV were compared to non-Indigenous eligible for 7vPCV only from the pre-vaccine introduction period (Indigenous 1994-2000; non-Indigenous 2002-2004) to the post-vaccine period (2008-2010 in both groups) using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) stratified by age into serotype groupings of vaccine (7v and 13vPCV and 23vPPV) and non-vaccine types. Vaccine coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. Results: At baseline, total IPD incidence per 100,000 was 216 (n= 230) in Indigenous versus 55 (n= 1993) in non-Indigenous children. In 2008-2010, IRRs for 7vPCV type IPD were 0.03 in both groups, but for 23v-non7v type IPD 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) in Indigenous versus 3.1 (95% CI 2.5-3.7) in non-Indigenous, difference driven primarily by serotype 19A IPD (IRR 0.6 in Indigenous versus 4.3 in non-Indigenous). For non-7vPCV type IPD overall, IRR was significantly higher in those age-eligible for 23vPPV booster compared to those younger, but in both age groups was lower than for non-Indigenous children. Conclusion: These ecologic data suggest a possible "serotype replacement sparing" effect of 23vPPV following 7vPCV priming, especially for serotype 19A with supportive evidence from other immunogenicity and carriage studies. Applicability post 10vPCV or 13v PCV priming in similar settings would depend on local serotype distribution of IPD. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of New South Wales, University of Western Australia and Office of Health Protection
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2016

Australia introduced universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) from 2005, replaced by 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2011, uniquely among high-income countries giving doses at 2, 4, and 6 months (3 + 0 schedule). Data on impact of a timely 3 + 0 PCV schedule with high coverage are sparse, with none for PCV13.We used national surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from 2002 for baseline and appropriate later comparison periods to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by serotype and age using a Poisson model. PCV coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register.After 9 years of timely 3-dose PCV coverage of >92%, all-age IPD in Australia almost halved (IRR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], .50-.57), but differed by PCV era. Reductions in IPD due to vaccine serotypes from PCV7 (IRR, 0.20; CI, .17-.22) were about 2-fold greater than for IPD due to extra serotypes in PCV13 (13v-non7v) in a similar period (IRR, 0.58; CI, .51-.66). Post-PCV13 declines in serotype 19A IPD in persons aged <2 years (IRR, 0.23; CI, .13-.35) and 2 years (IRR, 0.35; CI, .28-.44) differed from other 13v-non7v IPD (IRR, 0.73; CI, .35-1.48 for those aged <2 years and IRR, 0.96; CI, .81-1.15 for those 2 years). Meningitis due to vaccine serotypes nearly disappeared in children eligible for 3 PCV13 doses. IPD due to non-PCV13 serotypes increased by 30% compared with 76% for non-PCV7 serotypes in equivalent period of vaccine use.Reductions in vaccine-type IPD post-PCV13 were inferior to Australian experience with PCV7 and reports from high-income countries giving a PCV booster dose. Applicability of findings to other settings would depend on age of IPD onset, serotype profile, and timeliness of vaccination.

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