National Center for Health Marketing

Atlanta, GA, United States

National Center for Health Marketing

Atlanta, GA, United States
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Elder R.W.,National Center for Health Marketing | Lawrence B.,National Center for Health Marketing | Ferguson A.,National Center for Health Marketing | Naimi T.S.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups.


Soler R.E.,National Center for Health Marketing | Leeks K.D.,National Center for Health Marketing | Razi S.,National Center for Health Marketing | Hopkins D.P.,National Center for Health Marketing | And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Many health behaviors and physiologic indicators can be used to estimate one's likelihood of illness or premature death. Methods have been developed to assess this risk, most notably the use of a health-risk assessment or biometric screening tool. This report provides recommendations on the effectiveness of interventions that use an Assessment of Health Risks with Feedback (AHRF) when used alone or as part of a broader worksite health promotion program to improve the health of employees. Evidence acquisition: The Guide to Community Preventive Services' methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the effectiveness of AHRF when used alone and when used in combination with other intervention components. Effectiveness was assessed on the basis of changes in health behaviors and physiologic estimates, but was also informed by changes in risk estimates, healthcare service use, and worker productivity. Evidence synthesis: The review team identified strong evidence of effectiveness of AHRF when used with health education with or without other intervention components for five outcomes. There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness for four additional outcomes assessed. There is insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness for others such as changes in body composition and fruit and vegetable intake. The team also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of AHRF when implemented alone. Conclusions: The results of these reviews indicate that AHRF is useful as a gateway intervention to a broader worksite health promotion program that includes health education lasting ≥1 hour or repeating multiple times during 1 year, and that may include an array of health promotion activities. These reviews form the basis of the recommendations by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services presented elsewhere in this supplement.


Baron R.C.,National Center for Health Marketing | Melillo S.,National Center for Health Marketing | Rimer B.K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Coates R.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet, not all people who should be screened are screened regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation, and other harms or benefits of provider reminder/recall interventions to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. These interventions involve using systems to inform healthcare providers when individual clients are due (reminder) or overdue (recall) for specific cancer screening tests. Evidence in this review of studies published from 1986 through 2004 indicates that reminder/recall systems can effectively increase screening with mammography, Pap, fecal occult blood tests, and flexible sigmoidoscopy. Additional research is needed to determine if provider reminder/recall systems are effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening by colonoscopy. Specific areas for further research are also suggested. © 2010.


Burrus B.,Rti International | Leeks K.D.,Rti International | Sipe T.A.,National Center for Health Marketing | Dolina S.,Rti International | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Context: Adolescence marks a time when many young people engage in risky behaviors with potential implications for long-term health. Interventions focused on adolescents' parents and other caregivers have the potential to affect adolescents across a variety of risk and health-outcome areas. Evidence acquisition: Community Guide methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of caregiver-targeted interventions in addressing adolescent risk and protective behaviors and health outcomes. Sixteen studies published during the search period (19662007) met review requirements and were included in this review. Evidence synthesis: Effectiveness was assessed based on changes in whether or not adolescents engaged in specified risk and protective behaviors; frequency of risk and protective behaviors, and health outcomes, also informed the results. Results from qualifying studies provided sufficient evidence that interventions delivered person-to-person (i.e., through some form of direct contact rather than through other forms of contact such as Internet or paper) and designed to modify parenting skills by targeting parents and other caregivers are effective in improving adolescent health. Conclusions: Interventions delivered to parents and other caregivers affect a cross-cutting array of adolescent risk and protective behaviors to yield improvements in adolescent health. Analysis from this review forms the basis of the recommendation by the Community Preventive Services Task Force presented elsewhere in this issue.


Soler R.E.,National Center for Health Marketing | Leeks K.D.,National Center for Health Marketing | Buchanan L.R.,National Center for Chronic Disease Health Promotion and Prevention | Brownson R.C.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

In 2000, the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) completed a systematic review of the effectiveness of various approaches to increasing physical activity including informational, behavioral and social, and environmental and policy approaches. Among these approaches was the use of signs placed by elevators and escalators to encourage stair use. This approach was found to be effective based on sufficient evidence. Over the past 5 years the body of evidence of this intervention has increased substantially, warranting an updated review. This update was conducted on 16 peer-reviewed studies (including the six studies in the previous systematic review), which met specified quality criteria and included evaluation outcomes of interest. These studies evaluated two interventions: point-of-decision prompts to increase stair use and enhancements to stairs or stairwells (e.g., painting walls, laying carpet, adding artwork, playing music) when combined with point-of-decision prompts to increase stair use. This latter intervention was not included in the original systematic review. According to the Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that point-of-decision prompts are effective in increasing the use of stairs. There is insufficient evidence, due to an inadequate number of studies, to determine whether or not enhancements to stairs or stairwells are an effective addition to point-of-decision prompts. This article describes the rationale for these systematic reviews, along with information about the review process and the resulting conclusions. Additional information about applicability, other effects, and barriers to implementation is also provided.


Hopkins D.P.,National Center for Health Marketing | Razi S.,National Center for Health Marketing | Leeks K.D.,National Center for Health Marketing | Priya Kalra G.,National Center for Health Marketing | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

In 2001, a systematic review for the Guide to Community Preventive Services identified strong evidence of effectiveness of smoking bans and restrictions in reducing exposure to environmental (secondhand) tobacco smoke. As follow-up to that earlier review, the focus here was on the evidence on effectiveness of smokefree policies in reducing tobacco use. Smokefree policies implemented by worksites or communities prohibit smoking in workplaces and designated public areas. The conceptual approach was modified for this review; an updated search for evidence was conducted; and the available evidence was evaluated. Published articles that met quality criteria and evaluated changes in tobacco-use prevalence or cessation were included in the review. A total of 57 studies were identified in the period 1976 through June 2005 that met criteria to be candidates for review; of these, 37 met study design and quality of execution criteria to qualify for final assessment. Twenty-one studies measured absolute differences in tobacco-use prevalence with a median effect of -3.4 percentage points (interquartile interval: -6.3 to -1.4 percentage points). Eleven studies measured differences in tobacco-use cessation among tobacco users exposed to a smokefree policy compared with tobacco users not exposed to a smokefree policy. The median absolute change was an increase in cessation of 6.4 percentage points (interquartile interval: 1.3 to 7.9 percentage points). The qualifying studies provided sufficient evidence that smokefree policies reduce tobacco use among workers when implemented in worksites or by communities. Finally, a systematic economic review identified four studies that, overall, demonstrated economic benefits from a smokefree workplace policy. Additional research is needed to more fully evaluate the total economic effects of these policies.


Leeks K.D.,National Center for Health Marketing | Hopkins D.P.,National Center for Health Marketing | Soler R.E.,National Center for Health Marketing | Aten A.,National Center for Health Marketing | Chattopadhyay S.K.,National Center for Health Marketing
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

The Guide to Community Preventive Service (Community Guide) methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use among workers. These interventions offer a reward to individuals or to teams of individuals on the basis of participation or success in a specified smoking behavior change (such as abstaining from tobacco use for a period of time). The review team identified a total of 26 published studies, 14 of which met study design and quality of execution criteria for inclusion in the final assessment. Only one study, which did not qualify for review, evaluated the use of incentives when implemented alone. All of the 14 qualifying studies evaluated incentives and competitions when implemented in combination with a variety of additional interventions, such as client education, smoking cessation groups, and telephone cessation support. Of the qualifying studies, 13 evaluated differences in tobacco-use cessation among intervention participants, with a median follow-up period of 12 months. The median change in self-reported tobacco-use cessation was an increase of 4.4 percentage points (a median relative percentage improvement of 67%). The present evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of incentives or competitions, when implemented alone, to reduce tobacco use. However, the qualifying studies provide strong evidence, according to Community Guide rules, that worksite-based incentives and competitions in combination with additional interventions are effective in increasing the number of workers who quit using tobacco. In addition, these multicomponent interventions have the potential to generate positive economic returns over investment when the averted costs of tobacco-associated illnesses are considered. A concurrent systematic review identified four studies with economic evidence. Two of these studies provided evidence of net cost savings to employers when program costs are adjusted for averted healthcare expenses and productivity losses, based on referenced secondary estimates.


PubMed | National Center for Health Marketing
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of preventive medicine | Year: 2010

A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups.


PubMed | National Center for Health Marketing
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of preventive medicine | Year: 2010

Many health behaviors and physiologic indicators can be used to estimate ones likelihood of illness or premature death. Methods have been developed to assess this risk, most notably the use of a health-risk assessment or biometric screening tool. This report provides recommendations on the effectiveness of interventions that use an Assessment of Health Risks with Feedback (AHRF) when used alone or as part of a broader worksite health promotion program to improve the health of employees.The Guide to Community Preventive Services methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the effectiveness of AHRF when used alone and when used in combination with other intervention components. Effectiveness was assessed on the basis of changes in health behaviors and physiologic estimates, but was also informed by changes in risk estimates, healthcare service use, and worker productivity.The review team identified strong evidence of effectiveness of AHRF when used with health education with or without other intervention components for five outcomes. There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness for four additional outcomes assessed. There is insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness for others such as changes in body composition and fruit and vegetable intake. The team also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of AHRF when implemented alone.The results of these reviews indicate that AHRF is useful as a gateway intervention to a broader worksite health promotion program that includes health education lasting > or =1 hour or repeating multiple times during 1 year, and that may include an array of health promotion activities. These reviews form the basis of the recommendations by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services presented elsewhere in this supplement.


PubMed | National Center for Health Marketing
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of preventive medicine | Year: 2010

The Guide to Community Preventive Service (Community Guide) methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use among workers. These interventions offer a reward to individuals or to teams of individuals on the basis of participation or success in a specified smoking behavior change (such as abstaining from tobacco use for a period of time). The review team identified a total of 26 published studies, 14 of which met study design and quality of execution criteria for inclusion in the final assessment. Only one study, which did not qualify for review, evaluated the use of incentives when implemented alone. All of the 14 qualifying studies evaluated incentives and competitions when implemented in combination with a variety of additional interventions, such as client education, smoking cessation groups, and telephone cessation support. Of the qualifying studies, 13 evaluated differences in tobacco-use cessation among intervention participants, with a median follow-up period of 12 months. The median change in self-reported tobacco-use cessation was an increase of 4.4 percentage points (a median relative percentage improvement of 67%). The present evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of incentives or competitions, when implemented alone, to reduce tobacco use. However, the qualifying studies provide strong evidence, according to Community Guide rules, that worksite-based incentives and competitions in combination with additional interventions are effective in increasing the number of workers who quit using tobacco. In addition, these multicomponent interventions have the potential to generate positive economic returns over investment when the averted costs of tobacco-associated illnesses are considered. A concurrent systematic review identified four studies with economic evidence. Two of these studies provided evidence of net cost savings to employers when program costs are adjusted for averted healthcare expenses and productivity losses, based on referenced secondary estimates.

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