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Price D.P.,New Mexico State University | Schilkey F.D.,National Center for Genome Resources | Ulanov A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Hansen I.A.,New Mexico State University
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Environmental factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, and larval density determine the outcome of postembryonic development in mosquitoes. Suboptimal temperatures, crowding, and starvation during the larval phase reduce adult mosquito size, nutrient stores and affect vectorial capacity. Methods: In this study we compared adult female Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain, raised under standard laboratory conditions (Large) with those raised under crowded and nutritionally deprived conditions (Small). To compare the gene expression and nutritional state of the major energy storage and metabolic organ, the fat body, we performed transcriptomics using Illumina based RNA-seq and metabolomics using GC/MS on females before and 24 hours following blood feeding. Results: Analysis of fat body gene expression between the experimental groups revealed a large number of significantly differentially expressed genes. Transcripts related to immunity, reproduction, autophagy, several metabolic pathways; including amino acid degradation and metabolism; and membrane transport were differentially expressed. Metabolite profiling identified 60 metabolites within the fat body to be significantly affected between small and large mosquitoes, with the majority of detected free amino acids at a higher level in small mosquitoes compared to large. Conclusions: Gene expression and metabolites in the adult fat body reflect the individual post-embryonic developmental history of a mosquito larva. These changes affect nutritional storage and utilization, immunity, and reproduction. Therefore, it is apparent that changes in larval environment due to weather conditions, nutrition availability, vector control efforts, and other factors can affect adult vectorial capacity in the field. © 2015 Price et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Young N.D.,University of Minnesota | Bharti A.K.,National Center for Genome Resources
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Legumes are the third-largest family of angiosperms, the second-most-important crop family, and a key source of biological nitrogen in agriculture. Recently, the genome sequences of Glycine max (soybean), Medicago truncatula, and Lotus japonicus were substantially completed. Comparisons among legume genomes reveal a key role for duplication, especially a whole-genome duplication event approximately 58 Mya that is shared by most agriculturally important legumes. A second and more recent genome duplication occurred only in the lineage leading to soybean. Outcomes of genome duplication, including gene fractionation and sub-and neofunctionalization, have played key roles in shaping legume genomes and in the evolution of legume-specific traits. Analysis of legume genome sequences also enables the discovery of legume-specific gene families and provides a framework for genome-wide association mapping that will target phenotypes of special importance in legumes. Translating genomic resources from sequenced species to less studied but still important orphan legumes will enhance prospects for world food production. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Schmidt M.A.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | Barbazuk W.B.,University of Florida | Sandford M.,University of Florida | May G.,National Center for Genome Resources | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

The ontogeny of seed structure and the accumulation of seed storage substances is the result of a determinant genetic program. Using RNA interference, the synthesis of soybean (Glycine max) glycinin and conglycinin storage proteins has been suppressed. The storage protein knockdown (SP-) seeds are overtly identical to the wild type, maturing to similar size and weight, and in developmental ontogeny. The SP- seeds rebalance the proteome, maintaining wild-type levels of protein and storage triglycerides. The SP- soybeans were evaluated with systems biology techniques of proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics using both microarray and next-generation sequencing transcript sequencing (RNA-Seq). Proteomic analysis shows that rebalancing of protein content largely results from the selective increase in the accumulation of only a few proteins. The rebalancing of protein composition occurs with small alterations to the seed's transcriptome and metabolome. The selectivity of the rebalancing was further tested by introgressing into the SP- line a green fluorescent protein (GFP) glycinin allele mimic and quantifying the resulting accumulation of GFP. The GFP accumulation was similar to the parental GFPexpressing line, showing that the GFP glycinin gene mimic does not participate in proteome rebalancing. The results show that soybeans make large adjustments to the proteome during seed filling and compensate for the shortage of major proteins with the increased selective accumulation of other proteins that maintains a normal protein content. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Ramaraj T.,Montana State University | Ramaraj T.,National Center for Genome Resources | Angel T.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Dratz E.A.,Montana State University | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2012

The structures of protein antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) interfaces contain information about how Ab recognize Ag as well as how Ag are folded to present surfaces for Ag recognition. As such, the Ab surface holds information about Ag folding that resides with the Ab-Ag interface residues and how they interact. In order to gain insight into the nature of such interactions, a data set comprised of 53 non-redundant 3D structures of Ag-Ab complexes was analyzed. We assessed the physical and biochemical features of the Ag-Ab interfaces and the degree to which favored interactions exist between amino acid residues on the corresponding interface surfaces. Amino acid compositional analysis of the interfaces confirmed the dominance of TYR in the Ab paratope-containing surface (PCS), with almost two fold greater abundance than any other residue. Additionally TYR had a much higher than expected presence in the PCS compared to the surface of the whole antibody (defined as the occurrence propensity), along with aromatics PHE, TRP, and to a lesser degree HIS and ILE. In the Ag epitope-containing surface (ECS), there were slightly increased occurrence propensities of TRP and TYR relative to the whole Ag surface, implying an increased significance over the compositionally most abundant LYS > ASN > GLU > ASP > ARG. This examination encompasses a large, diverse set of unique Ag-Ab crystal structures that help explain the biological range and specificity of Ag-Ab interactions. This analysis may also provide a measure of the significance of individual amino acid residues in phage display analysis of Ag binding. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kingsmore S.F.,National Center for Genome Resources | Saunders C.J.,Childrens Mercy Hospital
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2011

Next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly lowered the cost of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and related approaches. Thus, comprehensive sequencing for diagnostic purposes may clear this financial hurdle in the near future. The report by Bainbridge and colleagues in this issue of Science Translational Medicine illustrates the diagnostic power of WGS. In this Perspective, we discuss whether and how genome sequencing might become routine for clinical diagnosis.

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