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Price D.P.,New Mexico State University | Schilkey F.D.,National Center for Genome Resources | Ulanov A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Hansen I.A.,New Mexico State University
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Environmental factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, and larval density determine the outcome of postembryonic development in mosquitoes. Suboptimal temperatures, crowding, and starvation during the larval phase reduce adult mosquito size, nutrient stores and affect vectorial capacity. Methods: In this study we compared adult female Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain, raised under standard laboratory conditions (Large) with those raised under crowded and nutritionally deprived conditions (Small). To compare the gene expression and nutritional state of the major energy storage and metabolic organ, the fat body, we performed transcriptomics using Illumina based RNA-seq and metabolomics using GC/MS on females before and 24 hours following blood feeding. Results: Analysis of fat body gene expression between the experimental groups revealed a large number of significantly differentially expressed genes. Transcripts related to immunity, reproduction, autophagy, several metabolic pathways; including amino acid degradation and metabolism; and membrane transport were differentially expressed. Metabolite profiling identified 60 metabolites within the fat body to be significantly affected between small and large mosquitoes, with the majority of detected free amino acids at a higher level in small mosquitoes compared to large. Conclusions: Gene expression and metabolites in the adult fat body reflect the individual post-embryonic developmental history of a mosquito larva. These changes affect nutritional storage and utilization, immunity, and reproduction. Therefore, it is apparent that changes in larval environment due to weather conditions, nutrition availability, vector control efforts, and other factors can affect adult vectorial capacity in the field. © 2015 Price et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Ramaraj T.,Montana State University | Ramaraj T.,National Center for Genome Resources | Angel T.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Dratz E.A.,Montana State University | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2012

The structures of protein antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) interfaces contain information about how Ab recognize Ag as well as how Ag are folded to present surfaces for Ag recognition. As such, the Ab surface holds information about Ag folding that resides with the Ab-Ag interface residues and how they interact. In order to gain insight into the nature of such interactions, a data set comprised of 53 non-redundant 3D structures of Ag-Ab complexes was analyzed. We assessed the physical and biochemical features of the Ag-Ab interfaces and the degree to which favored interactions exist between amino acid residues on the corresponding interface surfaces. Amino acid compositional analysis of the interfaces confirmed the dominance of TYR in the Ab paratope-containing surface (PCS), with almost two fold greater abundance than any other residue. Additionally TYR had a much higher than expected presence in the PCS compared to the surface of the whole antibody (defined as the occurrence propensity), along with aromatics PHE, TRP, and to a lesser degree HIS and ILE. In the Ag epitope-containing surface (ECS), there were slightly increased occurrence propensities of TRP and TYR relative to the whole Ag surface, implying an increased significance over the compositionally most abundant LYS > ASN > GLU > ASP > ARG. This examination encompasses a large, diverse set of unique Ag-Ab crystal structures that help explain the biological range and specificity of Ag-Ab interactions. This analysis may also provide a measure of the significance of individual amino acid residues in phage display analysis of Ag binding. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Schmidt M.A.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | Barbazuk W.B.,University of Florida | Sandford M.,University of Florida | May G.,National Center for Genome Resources | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

The ontogeny of seed structure and the accumulation of seed storage substances is the result of a determinant genetic program. Using RNA interference, the synthesis of soybean (Glycine max) glycinin and conglycinin storage proteins has been suppressed. The storage protein knockdown (SP-) seeds are overtly identical to the wild type, maturing to similar size and weight, and in developmental ontogeny. The SP- seeds rebalance the proteome, maintaining wild-type levels of protein and storage triglycerides. The SP- soybeans were evaluated with systems biology techniques of proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics using both microarray and next-generation sequencing transcript sequencing (RNA-Seq). Proteomic analysis shows that rebalancing of protein content largely results from the selective increase in the accumulation of only a few proteins. The rebalancing of protein composition occurs with small alterations to the seed's transcriptome and metabolome. The selectivity of the rebalancing was further tested by introgressing into the SP- line a green fluorescent protein (GFP) glycinin allele mimic and quantifying the resulting accumulation of GFP. The GFP accumulation was similar to the parental GFPexpressing line, showing that the GFP glycinin gene mimic does not participate in proteome rebalancing. The results show that soybeans make large adjustments to the proteome during seed filling and compensate for the shortage of major proteins with the increased selective accumulation of other proteins that maintains a normal protein content. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.


Young N.D.,University of Minnesota | Bharti A.K.,National Center for Genome Resources
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Legumes are the third-largest family of angiosperms, the second-most-important crop family, and a key source of biological nitrogen in agriculture. Recently, the genome sequences of Glycine max (soybean), Medicago truncatula, and Lotus japonicus were substantially completed. Comparisons among legume genomes reveal a key role for duplication, especially a whole-genome duplication event approximately 58 Mya that is shared by most agriculturally important legumes. A second and more recent genome duplication occurred only in the lineage leading to soybean. Outcomes of genome duplication, including gene fractionation and sub-and neofunctionalization, have played key roles in shaping legume genomes and in the evolution of legume-specific traits. Analysis of legume genome sequences also enables the discovery of legume-specific gene families and provides a framework for genome-wide association mapping that will target phenotypes of special importance in legumes. Translating genomic resources from sequenced species to less studied but still important orphan legumes will enhance prospects for world food production. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Kingsmore S.F.,National Center for Genome Resources | Kingsmore S.F.,Childrens Mercy Hospital | Saunders C.J.,Childrens Mercy Hospital
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2011

Next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly lowered the cost of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and related approaches. Thus, comprehensive sequencing for diagnostic purposes may clear this financial hurdle in the near future. The report by Bainbridge and colleagues in this issue of Science Translational Medicine illustrates the diagnostic power of WGS. In this Perspective, we discuss whether and how genome sequencing might become routine for clinical diagnosis.


Gupta S.,Auburn University | Shi X.,Auburn University | Lindquist I.E.,National Center for Genome Resources | Devitt N.,National Center for Genome Resources | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Tomato is a model and economically important crop plant with little information available about gene expression in roots. Currently, there have only been a few studies that examine hormonal responses in tomato roots and none at a genome-wide level. This study examined the transcriptome atlas of tomato root regions (root tip, lateral roots, and whole roots) and the transcriptional regulation of each root region in response to the plant hormones cytokinin and auxin using Illumina RNA sequencing. More than 165 million 1×54 base pair reads were mapped onto the Solanum lycopersicum reference genome and differential expression patterns in each root region in response to each hormone were assessed. Many novel cytokinin- and auxin-induced and -repressed genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed and the expression levels of several were confirmed by qPCR. A number of these regulated genes represent tomato orthologues of cytokinin- or auxin-regulated genes identified in other species, including CKXs, type-A RRs, Aux/IAAs, and ARFs. Additionally, the data confirm some of the hormone regulation studies for recently examined genes in tomato such as SlIAAs and SlGH3s. Moreover, genes expressed abundantly in each root region were identified which provide a spatial distribution of many classes of genes, including plant defence, secondary metabolite production, and general metabolism across the root. Overall this study presents the first global expression patterns of hormone-regulated transcripts in tomato roots, which will be functionally relevant for future studies directed towards tomato root growth and development. © 2013 © 2013 The Authors.


Parchman T.L.,University of Wyoming | Gompert Z.,University of Wyoming | Mudge J.,National Center for Genome Resources | Schilkey F.D.,National Center for Genome Resources | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Pine cones that remain closed and retain seeds until fire causes the cones to open (cone serotiny) represent a key adaptive trait in a variety of pine species. In lodgepole pine, there is substantial geographical variation in serotiny across the Rocky Mountain region. This variation in serotiny has evolved as a result of geographically divergent selection, with consequences that extend to forest communities and ecosystems. An understanding of the genetic architecture of this trait is of interest owing to the wide-reaching ecological consequences of serotiny and also because of the repeated evolution of the trait across the genus. Here, we present and utilize an inexpensive and time-effective method for generating population genomic data. The method uses restriction enzymes and PCR amplification to generate a library of fragments that can be sequenced with a high level of multiplexing. We obtained data for more than 95 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 98 serotinous and nonserotinous lodgepole pines from three populations. We used a Bayesian generalized linear model (GLM) to test for an association between genotypic variation at these loci and serotiny. The probability of serotiny varied by genotype at 11 loci, and the association between genotype and serotiny at these loci was consistent in each of the three populations of pines. Genetic variation across these 11 loci explained 50% of the phenotypic variation in serotiny. Our results provide a first genome-wide association map of serotiny in pines and demonstrate an inexpensive and efficient method for generating population genomic data. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


De Leon K.B.,Montana State University | Gerlach R.,Montana State University | Peyton B.M.,Montana State University | Fields M.W.,Montana State University | Fields M.W.,National Center for Genome Resources
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2013

The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (=10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. © 2013 Bowen De León, Gerlach, Peyton and Fields.


Trademark
National Center For Genome Resources | Date: 2014-08-22

Computer software for scientific analysis of genetic sequences.


Trademark
National Center For Genome Resources | Date: 2014-08-25

Computer software for scientific analysis of genetic sequences.

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