National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology

Apata, Nigeria

National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology

Apata, Nigeria
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Oduwaye O.A.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Porbeni J.B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Adetiloye I.S.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
Journal of Horticultural Research | Year: 2016

For plant genetic improvement, it is paramount to determine genetic components for the selection of desirable traits. Eighteen Amaranthus cruentus and 11 Amaranthus hypochondriacus genotypes were evaluated at two locations in Nigeria differing in temperature/precipitation to determine the influence of environment on genetic gain. Genotype × environment was significant for all analysed morphological parameters and for grain yield, 1000 seed weight and no. of days to 50% flowering in A. cruentus. In A. hypochondriacus genotype × environment was significant for plant height, leaf length and width, leaf area, inflorescence length, 1000 seed weight and grain yield. Higher genotypic coefficient of variability, heritability estimates, and genetic advance was observed for the traits at Abeokuta (more wet) than Ibadan (more dry) conditions. Grain yield had positive association with the traits at the two locations except the number of leaves and inflorescence length. Inflorescence length was positively associated with grain yield at Abeokuta and negatively associated at Ibadan. Path analysis indicated simultaneous improvement of grain yield with petiole length and leaf length at Abeokuta but with petiole length and leaf area at Ibadan. In general, the locations had potential for genetic improvement of traits of amaranth grain; therefore, selection criteria for improving grain yield should be considered with respect to environment. © 2016 Olusegun A. Oduwaye et al., published by De Gruyter Open.

Adesoye A.I.,University of Ibadan | Emese A.,University of Ibadan | Olayode O.M.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2012

Studies on in vitro organogenesis of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were carried out with the aim of developing a rapid regeneration system for this crop. Embryo and leaf explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) containing varying concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP), kinetin and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The maximum number of shoots per explant (4.5) and percentage multiple shoot induction (100%) were obtained in MS supplemented with 0.05 mg.L-1 NAA and 0.5 mg.L-1 BAP. The maximum shoot length (135 mm) was obtained on a medium with 1.0 mg.L-1 kinetin and 0.1 mg.L-1 NAA. When cotyledonary node explants and shoot tip explants were cultured on media with BAP and kinetin singly, each at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg.L-1, both explants produced the maximum number of shoots (4.75) and shoot length (25 mm) on 2.0 mg.L-1 BAP while the least responses were obtained on 1.0 mg.L-1 kinetin. There was no organ formation from leaves as they all produced calli. Multiple shoots from the embryo produced roots directly on shoot induction medium while shoot tip-derived multiple shoots rooted when tested on both 0.25 and 0.5 mg.L-1 NAA. Shoots from cotyledonary nodes did not produce roots. Successfully rooted plantlets obtained from this study is the first report of in vitro plant regeneration in African yam bean. This procedure for direct organ differentiation would facilitate micropropagation and improvement of this species through genetic transformation.

Oduoye O.T.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
Forest Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Samples from nine species of Anthocleista were collected from major extant forest and herbaria in the West African countries of Nigeria, the Republic of Benin and Ghana for identification and conservation. They were assessed in the field and in the laboratory for their morphological and anatomical characteristics. Their leaf shapes are elliptic, oblong, obovate or oblanceolate. The leaf length ranged from 8 cm to 70 cm; width was between 3 cm and 28 cm. They generally possess either anisocytic or anomocytic stomata, and two species are amphistomatic in nature. Trichomes are either stellate, dendritic or both with varying number of arms and arm length. Their leaf epidermal cuticle is coated with either soft wax or scale and plate types of ornamentation. Principal component analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average revealed that the leaf shape and size, phyllotaxy, inflorescence, epidermal cell dimension, stomata indices, trichome density and wax coating are sufficient to delimit this economically useful genus in their populations both for their medicinal importance and conservation purposes. © 2013 Korean Forest Society.

Olajire E.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Nwosu D.J.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Alamu O.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Coker D.O.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Aladele S.E.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2015

Reservoirs of variation offered by conserved germplasm are required by plant breeders, agricultural researchers, research students and farmers for crop selection, improvement and production to ensure food security needs of the world's rapidly rising population. The establishment of large, crop-genepool-specific collections at NACGRAB (National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology) gene bank, Ibadan, southwest Nigeria was based mostly on targeted collections over the years and donations. Conservation and utilization of plants genetic resources are important components of ex-situ collections. This article describes the utilization of conserved germplasm in NACGRAB gene bank as expressed from seed collection data of various end user institutions in the country over three years. The results show an increase in number of accessions of different crop species collected over the period under review. However, most collecting institutions are in close proximity to the gene bank. Highlighted were the need for improvement of utilization of gene bank materials in Nigeria through organization of campaign and public awareness programmes aimed at sensitizing the populace on germplasm utilization and improvement in networking to pivot some of the exploration activities based on their needs, and collaboration with other stakeholders to undertake germplasm characterization and evaluation in order to reduce cost.

Borokini T.I.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2011

With very scanty information on invasive alien species (IAS) in Nigeria, this study was conducted to identify the invasive species in the field gene bank of the National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Ibadan, Nigeria, on the latitude 7° 22' north of the equator and longitude 3° 50' east of the Greenwich Meridian, and also to assess the level of the species' disturbance to the conserved native plants in the protected area. This study involved sampling of the field gene bank and an on-site assessment and identification of the species and their effects on the indigenous plants established in the field for conservation. Twenty-five invasive plant species were identified, across 16 plant families, of which 14 were herbs, followed by vines, shrubs, and trees, all of which are presently estimated to occupy about 18% of the gene bank. The effects of IAS on the indigenous plants conserved in the field gene bank range from competition for space and nutrients and alteration of the tree canopies (thereby affecting the microclimatic conditions in the lower strata) to obstruction of the plants' reception of sunlight (which could thereby reduce the potential yield of the fruit trees in the gene bank. The paper also discusses the effects of IAS on biodiversity conservation in Nigeria. Human disturbance was observed as the major factor responsible for the spread of these IAS in the gene bank. The paper concludes by advocating stricter screening measures before introducing new plants into the country, capacity building on the early detection and management of IAS in protected areas for the technical staff, biological control, and exchange of technical information among concerned countries. © Temitope Israel Borokini.

Mahesh U.,Kakatiya University | Mahesh U.,Andhra University | Mahesh U.,University of Hyderabad | Mamidala P.,Kakatiya University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Acquired thermotolerance in plants refers to the ability to cope with lethal high temperatures and it reflects an actual tolerance mechanism that occurs naturally in plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum syn. Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is sensitive to high temperature at all stages of its growth and development. Considering the important role of the heat shock protein gene (sHSP24.4 gene) in imparting tolerance to high temperature stress in the cells and tissues, we isolated small HSP24.4 (MasHSP24.4) cDNA from wild banana (Musa accuminata) and introduced it into the cultivated tomato cv. PKM1 by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Stable integration and expression of the transgene in the tomato genome was demonstrated by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. There was no adverse effect of transgene expression on overall growth and development of the transgenic plants. The genetic analysis of the transgenic T2 lines showed that the transgene segregated in a Mendelian ratio. We compared the survival of T2 transgenic lines compared to the control plants after exposure to different levels of high temperature. The gene MasHSP24.4 was expressed in root, shoot and stem tissues under 45 °C treatment and conferred tolerance to high-temperature stress as shown by increased seed germination, healthy vegetative growth and normal fruit and seed setting. The transgenic tomato plants showed significantly better growth performance in the recovery phase following the stress. This thermotolerance appeared to be solely due to overexpression of the sHSP24.4 gene. Thus, the transgenic tomato plants developed during the present investigations can be grown at high temperatures. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Khudhair A.B.,University of Technology Malaysia | Musa M.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Mohd Jaafar M.S.,University of Technology Malaysia | Hadibarata T.,University of Technology Malaysia
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa | Year: 2015

Dyes represent one of the persistent pollutants, which are difficult to remove from wastewater by the conventional treatment methods. Low cost adsorbents prepared from tire rubber waste were used to remove cresol red dye from liquid solution. In order to save energy no agitation or activation were made on the adsorption process. This will naturally slow down the process, but time was compared to cost. The adsorbent weight, particle diameter and duration time were explored to measure the effectiveness of these parameters on adsorption rate. The best removal reached more than 81% at adsorbent weight 12 g, particle diameter 2 mm, and duration of 21days. Experimental data were correlated well by the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir with R2 value of 0.8799. It is concluded that cresol red dye is physically adsorbed into the tire rubber waste. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications.

Okere A.U.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Adegeye A.,University of Ibadan
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The over exploitation of African mahogany in tropical forest has threatened the genetic base of this useful timber and medicinal tree species and as such, an experiment was conducted on the in vitro culture of Khaya grandifoliola, an endangered tree species commonly found in the high forest zones of West Africa to explore its potential for micropropagation. Embryos excised from matured seeds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetine (KIN) at different concentrations. The optimum result in relation to shoot length, root length, number of nodes and number of root was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP + 0.01 mg/L NAA. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Musa M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Musa M.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Kikuchi A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Majid Z.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering) | Year: 2014

The production of activated carbon (AC) from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was carried out using central composite design of response surface method to run a limited number of experiments with the possibility of revealing the interaction of three selected factors of temperature, time and nitrogen/steam flowrate at different levels. Two second order quadratic regression model equations were developed using statistical analysis with Design Expert® software. The models were used for the prediction of removal of Cd2+ and carbon yield. Correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.957 for removal and 0.985 for yield, showing the sufficiency of the model in predicting response within 13 experimental runs. Characterization of the product with optimal performance which was produced at 900oC, with nitrogen/steam flow of 100 mL/min and activation time of 30 minutes, was carried out. The performance showed this AC sample was able to remove 62.42% Cd2+ from an aqueous solution with concentration 2 mg/L within 2 hours at optimized conditions. Experimental results indicated that AC from SCB had good prospect for Cd2+ removal. © 2014 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.

Borokini T.I.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2013

Ex-situ conservation is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. There are several methods of ex-situ conservation being practiced in various parts of the world. However, the ex-situ conservation methods used in Nigeria include botanic and zoological gardens, arboretum, genebanks and in-vitro storage, a few DNA banks and cryopreservation efforts, and there are no active pollen banks. This paper reviews the state of the ex-situ conservation sites in Nigeria in order to bridge the information gaps on the ex-situ conservation of genetic resources in Nigeria. The research institutions, Universities and relevant non-Governmental organizations involved in the conservation of genetic resources ex-situ were taken into account, while their germplasm collections were stated. The challenges faced by ex-situ germplasm conservation were discussed and the role of the Government in improving those situations was emphasized.

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