National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment

Beijing, China

National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment

Beijing, China

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Zhang Q.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Yang H.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Li Y.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Liu H.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Jia X.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves have a long history of use as an abundant source of sweetener. The aqueous extract of stevia leaves and the predominant constitutes steviol glycosides have been intensively investigated. However, rare studies provided toxicological evaluation of bioactive components in the polar extract regarding their safety on human health. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves through a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests. Negative results were unanimously obtained from bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay. Oral administration at dietary levels of 1.04%, 2.08% and 3.12% for 90 days did not induce significant behavioral, hematological, clinical, or histopathological changes in rats. Significant reduction of cholesterol, total protein and albumin was observed in female animals only at high dose level. The results demonstrated that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves ethanolic extract, which is rich in isochlorogenic acids, does not possess adverse effects through oral administration in this study. Our data provided supportive evidence for the safety of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves that may potentially be used in functional foods as well as nutritional supplements beyond sweetner. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, University of Oxford and Peking University
Type: | Journal: International journal of cancer | Year: 2017

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in Western populations. Uncertainty remains, however, about the relevance of plasma glucose for PC among people without diabetes and about the associations of diabetes and high blood glucose with PC in China where the increase in diabetes prevalence has been very recent. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study recruited 512,000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas of China during 2004-08, recording 595 PC cases during 8 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PC associated with diabetes (previously diagnosed or screen-detected) and, among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, with levels of random plasma glucose (RPG). These were further meta-analysed with 22 published prospective studies. Overall 5.8% of CKB participants had diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was associated with almost two-fold increased risk of PC (adjusted HR=1.87, 95% CI 1.48-2.37), with excess risk higher in those with longer duration since diagnosis (p for trend=0.01). Among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher usual RPG was associated with a HR of 1.12 (1.04-1.21). In meta-analysis of CKB and 22 other studies, previously diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 52% excess risk (1.52, 1.43-1.63). Among those without diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher blood glucose was associated with a 15% (1.15, 1.09-1.21) excess risk. In Chinese and non-Chinese populations, diabetes and higher blood glucose levels among those without diabetes are associated with an increased risk of PC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Yan H.,Food Laboratory of Beijing Inspection and Quarantine Testing Center | Liu X.,Food Laboratory of Beijing Inspection and Quarantine Testing Center | Cui F.,Food Laboratory of Beijing Inspection and Quarantine Testing Center | Yun H.,Food Laboratory of Beijing Inspection and Quarantine Testing Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

A novel sample pretreatment method was developed for the quantitative determination of amantadine and rimantadine in chicken muscle tissues by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS). The samples were pretreated by modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, using acetonitrile (1% acetic acid, v/v) as extraction solution and C18 sorbent for clean-up. The separation was carried out on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (150mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm particle), using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution. LTQ Orbitrap MS with resolving power of 60000 was applied for analysis of the samples. Amantadine and rimantadine were identified from their accurate mass (within 5ppm) and retention times from the acquired full-scan chromatogram and quantified by their peak areas. The linear range for the determination of the analytes was 1-100μg/kg. Limits of detection (LODs) for amantadine and rimantadine were 1.02μg/kg and 0.67μg/kg, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from 87.5% to 102.4%, and 82.5% to 105.8% for amantadine, and 95.3% to 97.4%, and 89.4% to 93.2% for rimantadine, respectively. The precision of intra- and inter-day was between 3.9-6.3% and 5.95-13.9% for amantadine, 6.0-7.45% and 7.8-12.4% for rimantadine, respectively. Finally, the method was applied for the determination of these antiviral agents in routine samples, and amantadine residue was detected in some cases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Ma N.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research | Year: 2013

To give the original research of diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) on learning and memory behavior, determine whether it can through blood-brain barrier and effect apoptosis of hippocampus cells in mice. Accommodating 60 Kunming mice to the animal house for 3 days, then dividing the mice into 5 groups according to their weights. That is, one control group and four experimental groups (I group, 50 mg/kg BW. II group, 250mg/kg BW. III group, 500 mg/kg BW. IV group, 1000 mg/kg BW). The mice were fed with the corn oil in control group, and the other groups were fed with the related dose of diisobutyl phthalate mixture by gavages last for 8 weeks. At the end of experimental time, passive avoidance response was examined, then all of mice were killed, and choosed the brain tissues to test the DiBP content and apoptosis rate of hippocampal cells and hippocampal ultrastructural alterations on electron microscopy. In the passive avoidance response test, the exposed animals of IV group showed learning impairment as compared to unexposed mice (P < 0.05). DiBP was detected in III group and IV group, the mean content of them were (1.27 +/- 0.56) and (1.96 +/- 0.42) microg/g. The apoptosis rate of hippocampal cells (IV group vs control group) increase significantly (P < 0.05). Hippocampal ultrastructural were damaged in all dose-groups. As a result, in the experiments, exposure to DiBP could exert passive avoidance neurobehavioral effects. DiBP could through blood-brain barrier after oral intake, and disordered the way of apoptosis of hippocampal cells, and morphologic change of mitochondria mybe is the main reason of changes of neuron apoptosis.


Wang E.H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Wang E.H.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Yu Z.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Yu Z.,Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90. days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang H.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Jia X.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2015

Threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a scientific and practical method for the food safety risk assessment of chemicals, and also an useful tool for the identification and screening of chemicals with risk assessment priority. However, there were still controversial opinions concerning the application of this method, which was established to provide risk characterization on the bases of chemical structures whereas in the lack of conventional toxicological data. Here, we reviewed the principles, critical factors, and recent progress in the application of TTC method, to explore and summarize the critical aspects that need particular considerations in the risk assessment of chemicals.


Ma N.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Wang X.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Gao P.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Xu H.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) on the cAMP/PKA-CREB signaling pathway of hippocampus in mice.METHODS: Accommodating 30 KunMing mice to the animal house for 3 days, then dividing the mice into 5 groups according to their weights. That is, one control group and four experimental groups (I group, 50 mg/kg BW; II group, 250 mg/kg BW; Ill group, 500 mg/kg BW; IV group, 1000 mg/kg BW). The mice were fed with the corn oil in control group, and the other groups were fed with the related dose of DiBP mixture by gavages last for 8 weeks. At the end of experimental time, the mice were killed, and the tissue samples of hippocampus were taken immediately. The content of cAMP was determined by ELISA, and p-CREB, P-PKA C were measured by western blotting, while mRNA expressions including CREB, BDNF, c-fos and c-jun were checked by RT-PCR.RESULTS: The cAMP content and the p-PKA C protein of hippocampus in IV group was significantly less than control group (P<0.05) and compared with control group, the p-CREB protein of hippocampus in 1I group decreased (P<0.05), while the relative level of CREB, BDNF, c-fos and c-jun mRNA were down-regulated in all experimental groups.CONCLUSIONS: The abnormal changes of expression of the signal molecules composing the cAMP/PKA-CREB signaling pathway were observed in the hippocampus of DiBP exposure mice. This might be one of the possible mechanisms of DiBP induced cognitive impairment.


Liang C.L.,National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To assess the immunotoxicologic effects of genetically modified drought resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1 gene. A total of 250 female BALB/c mice (6-8 week-old, weight 18-22 g) were divided into five large groups (50 mice for each large group) by body weight randomly. In each large group, the mice were divided into five groups (10 mice for each group) by body weight randomly, which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control and positive control group were fed with feedstuff AIN-93G, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (proportion up to 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, organ coefficient of spleen and thymus, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC), serum 50% hemolytic value (HC50), mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected respectively. After 30 days raise, among negative control group, common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, mice body weight were (21.0±0.3), (20.4±0.7), (21.1±1.0), (21.1±1.0), (19.4±1.0) g, respectively (F=7.47, P<0.01); organ coefficient of spleen were (0.407±0.047)%, (0.390±0.028)%, (0.402±0.042)%, (0.421±0.041)%, (0.304±0.048)%, respectively (F=12.41, P<0.01); organ coefficient of thymus were (0.234±0.032)%, (0.246±0.028)%, (0.249±0.040)%, (0.234±0.034)%, (0.185±0.039)%, respectively (F=5.58, P<0.01); the percentage of T cell in peripheral blood were (70.43±4.44)%, (68.33±5.37)%, (73.04±2.68)%, (74.42±2.86)%, (90.42±1.66)%, respectively (F=57.51, P<0.01); the percentage of B cell were (13.89±3.19)%, (15.34±4.84)%, (13.06±4.22)%, (12.93±2.36)%, (3.01±0.96)%, respectively (F=12.79, P<0.01); the percentage of Th cell were (55.87±3.80)%, (55.24±4.60)%, (57.92±3.70)%, (59.57±2.54)%, (77.37±2.31)%, respectively (F=68.58, P<0.01);the Th/Ts ratio were 4.16±0.29, 4.73±0.96, 4.19±0.78, 4.52±0.40, 6.34±0.73, respectively (F=17.57, P<0.01);the serum IgG were (1046.38±210.67), (1065.49±297.22), (1517.73±299.52), (1576.67±241.92), (1155.88±167.05) μg/ml, respectively (F=10.53, P<0.01); the serum IgM were (333.83±18.97), (327.73±27.72), (367.47±27.18), (363.42±46.14), (278.71±24.42) μg/ml, respectively (F=12.11, P<0.01); the serum IgA were (51.69±10.10), (42.40 ± 8.35), (32.11±4.22), (37.12±4.90), (41.45±8.89) μg/ml, respectively (F=8.25, P<0.01); the PFC were (29.2±14.6), (28.0±20.0), (34.8±30.9), (33.2±25.1), (4.8±5.3) per 10(6) splenocyte, respectively (F=3.33, P<0.05); the HC50 were 82.3±6.5, 79.7±4.6, 75.8±4.1, 74.9±3.6, 70.8±2.1, respectively (F=9.99, P<0.01);the LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation were 0.21±0.10, 0.21±0.14, 0.26±0.12, 0.25±0.14, 0.07±0.06, respectively (F=4.18, P<0.05). The genetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 was substantially equivalent to parental wheat in the effects on immune organs and immunologic functions of mice, and it didn't show immunotoxicity.


PubMed | National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2017

GmTMT transgenic maize is a genetically modified maize plant that overexpresses the -tocopherol methyltransferase (-TMT) from Glycine max (Gm). The -TMT gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the GmTMT2a protein which can convert -tocopherol into -tocopherol. Overexpression of GmTMT2a significantly increased the -tocopherol content in transgenic maize. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of GmTMT maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Maize grains from GmTMT or Zhen58 were incorporated into rodent diets at low (12.5%), medium (25%) or high (50%) concentrations and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. The negative control group of rats (n=10/sex/group) were fed with common maize diets. Results from body weights, feed consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, absolute and relative organ weights indicated no treatment-related side effects of GmTMT maize grain on rats in comparison with rats consuming diets containing Zhen58 maize grain. In addition, no treatment-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Altogether, our data indicates that GmTMT transgenic maize is as safe and nutritious as its conventional non-transgenic maize.


PubMed | National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2015

Threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a scientific and practical method for the food safety risk assessment of chemicals, and also an useful tool for the identification and screening of chemicals with risk assessment priority. However, there were still controversial opinions concerning the application of this method, which was established to provide risk characterization on the bases of chemical structures whereas in the lack of conventional toxicological data. Here, we reviewed the principles, critical factors, and recent progress in the application of TTC method, to explore and summarize the critical aspects that need particular considerations in the risk assessment of chemicals.

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