National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health

Australia

National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health

Australia

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Kent L.M.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health | Worsley A.,University of Wollongong
Nutrition Research | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Pearce C.,Monash University | Phillips C.,Australian National University | Hall S.,Australian National University | Kljakovic M.,Australian National University | And 3 more authors.
Australian Health Review | Year: 2011

Introduction. Five years ago Australia, and the world, placed itself on heightened alert for pandemic influenza, based on concerns about the potential spread of the avian influenza virus. This prompted a flurry of preparation activity involving general practice, with information from various sources; government, colleges and divisions of general practice. Method. To assess how general practitioners and practice nurses perceive this information, practice nurses and general practitioners were interviewed as part of a larger project exploring the role of the Australian general practice sector in an influenza pandemic. Results were validated by two focus groups and scenario sessions. Findings. Participants perceived that non-government organisations rarely gave useful information during a pandemic outbreak. Local divisions were perceived as having a practical and useful role, providing hands-on support to practices during a pandemic outbreak. Our participants did not perceive any coordination in the delivery of information sent by all the organisations involved in a pandemic response and therefore rejected our second hypothesis. Conclusions. More planning needs to go into the coordinated response of the general practice sector to a pandemic, and such a response should include the support of local Divisions, both as a conduit for information and to assist practices to develop response plans. What is known about the topic? Response to a pandemic will require a coordinated response between primary and secondary care, public and private sectors. What does this paper add? Outlines the support needs for general practice to respond effectively, in particular highlighting the important role Divisions can play. What are the implications for practitioners? Planning for a pandemic should include Divisions of general practice as an integral element of the response, both as a conduit for information and to assist practices to develop response plans. © 2011 AHHA.


Samaan G.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health | Hendrawati F.,Disease Investigation Center | Taylor T.,Australian Animal Health Laboratory | Pitona T.,Disease Investigation Center | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2012

Problem The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a guideline with 10 control measures to reduce transmission of A(H5N1) avian influenza virus in markets in low-resource settings. The practical aspects of guide implementation have never been described. Approach WHO's guideline was implemented in two Indonesian markets in the city of Makassar to try to reduce transmission of the A(H5N1) virus. The guideline was operationalized using a participatory approach to introduce a combination of infrastructural and behavioural changes. Local setting Avian influenza is endemic in birds in Makassar. Two of the city's 22 dilapidated, poorly-run bird markets were chosen for the study. Before the intervention, neither market was following any of WHO's 10 recommended control measures except for batch processing. Relevant changes Market stakeholders' knowledge about the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus improved after the interventions. WHO guideline recommendations for visual inspection, cleaning and poultry-holding practices, as well as infrastructural requirements for zoning and for water supply and utilities, began to conform to the WHO guideline. Low-maintenance solutions such as installation of wastewater treatment systems and economic incentives such as composting were well received and appropriate for the low-resource setting. Lessons learnt Combining infrastructural changes with behaviour change interventions was critical to guideline implementation. Despite initial resistance to behaviour change, the participatory approach involving monthly consultations and educational sessions facilitated the adoption of safe food-handling practices and sanitation. Market authorities assumed important leadership roles during the interventions and this helped shift attitudes towards regulation and market maintenance needs. This shift may enhance the sustainability of the interventions.


Parry-Smith W.,Shrewsbury and Telford NHS Trust | Underwood M.,Shrewsbury and Telford NHS Trust | De Bellis-Ayres S.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health | Bangs L.,Shrewsbury and Telford NHS Trust | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To establish the cure rate at 1 year of patients who have undergone cold coagulation for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).DESIGN: Retrospective review of data for all patients at Shrewsbury and Telford NHS Trust who had undergone cold coagulation as part of their treatment for CIN between 2001 and 2011. Follow-up data up to December 2012 were analyzed.SETTING: Colposcopy Department, Shrewsbury and Telford NHS Trust, United Kingdom.POPULATION: Women undergoing cold coagulation for the treatment of CIN between 2001 and 2011, with cytologic follow-up until December 2012.METHODS: Patients were identified using a local colposcopy database. Data were obtained via the local histopathology reporting systems. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/IC 10.1 software.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Posttreatment cytology and whether subsequent treatment was required, with histology results.RESULTS: Data on 557 patients were collected and analyzed. Pre-cold coagulation treatment histologic findings were CIN 1 in 156 patients (28.01%), CIN 2 in 260 patients (46.68%), and CIN 3 in 141 patients (25.31%). The median length of time between cold coagulation treatment and first follow-up smear, used to calculate cure rates at around 1 year, was 406 days (interquartile range 123 days, range 169-3,116 days). The cure rate after cold coagulation was 95.7% at around 1 year.CONCLUSIONS: Cold coagulation has a cure rate comparable to that of excisional treatments such as large loop excision of the transformation zone and should be considered more widely in patients undergoing primary treatment for CIN, where there is no suspicion of invasive disease on history, examination and cytologic results. © 2014, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.


Sujaritpong S.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health | Dear K.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health | Cope M.,Center for Australian Weather and Climate Research | Walsh S.,EPA Victoria | Kjellstrom T.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2014

Climate change has been predicted to affect future air quality, with inevitable consequences for health. Quantifying the health effects of air pollution under a changing climate is crucial to provide evidence for actions to safeguard future populations. In this paper, we review published methods for quantifying health impacts to identify optimal approaches and ways in which existing challenges facing this line of research can be addressed. Most studies have employed a simplified methodology, while only a few have reported sensitivity analyses to assess sources of uncertainty. The limited investigations that do exist suggest that examining the health risk estimates should particularly take into account the uncertainty associated with future air pollution emissions scenarios, concentration-response functions, and future population growth and age structures. Knowledge gaps identified for future research include future health impacts from extreme air pollution events, interactions between temperature and air pollution effects on public health under a changing climate, and how population adaptation and behavioural changes in a warmer climate may modify exposure to air pollution and health consequences. © 2013 The Author(s).


Denehy E.J.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health
Communicable diseases intelligence | Year: 2011

On 30 April 2009, the Communicable Disease Control Branch (CDCB) South Australia was notified of a Salmonella infection in a person who attended a wedding reception on 25 April 2009. Several other attendees reported becoming unwell with a similar gastrointestinal illness. The CDCB commenced an investigation to: characterise the outbreak in terms of person, place and time; identify probable source or sources; and implement control measures. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken among wedding reception attendees. A questionnaire collecting information on demographics, illness and menu items consumed was given to the majority of attendees. An environmental inspection of the wedding reception premise and food supplier premise, including food sampling was conducted to identify plausible sources of infection. The questionnaire response rate was 77%, from which an attack rate of 20% was calculated. There was a significant association between consumption of garlic aioli and illness (OR 5.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 18.1). Nine wedding reception attendees' stool samples tested positive for Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 44. A sample of garlic aioli also tested positive for Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 44. The ingredients of the garlic aioli included raw egg yolk, roasted garlic, Dijon mustard, vinegar and vegetable oil. The raw egg yolk was identified as a high risk food item; however no eggs tested positive for Salmonella.


PubMed | National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report | Year: 2011

On 30 April 2009, the Communicable Disease Control Branch (CDCB) South Australia was notified of a Salmonella infection in a person who attended a wedding reception on 25 April 2009. Several other attendees reported becoming unwell with a similar gastrointestinal illness. The CDCB commenced an investigation to: characterise the outbreak in terms of person, place and time; identify probable source or sources; and implement control measures. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken among wedding reception attendees. A questionnaire collecting information on demographics, illness and menu items consumed was given to the majority of attendees. An environmental inspection of the wedding reception premise and food supplier premise, including food sampling was conducted to identify plausible sources of infection. The questionnaire response rate was 77%, from which an attack rate of 20% was calculated. There was a significant association between consumption of garlic aioli and illness (OR 5.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 18.1). Nine wedding reception attendees stool samples tested positive for Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 44. A sample of garlic aioli also tested positive for Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 44. The ingredients of the garlic aioli included raw egg yolk, roasted garlic, Dijon mustard, vinegar and vegetable oil. The raw egg yolk was identified as a high risk food item; however no eggs tested positive for Salmonella.


PubMed | National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2014

Climate change has been predicted to affect future air quality, with inevitable consequences for health. Quantifying the health effects of air pollution under a changing climate is crucial to provide evidence for actions to safeguard future populations. In this paper, we review published methods for quantifying health impacts to identify optimal approaches and ways in which existing challenges facing this line of research can be addressed. Most studies have employed a simplified methodology, while only a few have reported sensitivity analyses to assess sources of uncertainty. The limited investigations that do exist suggest that examining the health risk estimates should particularly take into account the uncertainty associated with future air pollution emissions scenarios, concentration-response functions, and future population growth and age structures. Knowledge gaps identified for future research include future health impacts from extreme air pollution events, interactions between temperature and air pollution effects on public health under a changing climate, and how population adaptation and behavioural changes in a warmer climate may modify exposure to air pollution and health consequences.


PubMed | Australian National University and National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report | Year: 2014

To determine the effect of rotavirus vaccination on rotavirus hospitalisations in children under 5 years of age at The Canberra Hospital, Australian Capital Territory.Rotavirus hospitalisations in children under 5 years of age at the Canberra Hospital were identified through a retrospective clinical audit of electronic medical hospitalisations in the pre-vaccine (2004-2006) and post-vaccine (2008-2012) periods. Records and confirmation with rotavirus pathology results were compared using MS Excel and Stata.Laboratory confirmed rotavirus infections resulted in 289 children being admitted to the Canberra Hospital between January 2004 and December 2012. Hospitalisation for rotavirus gastroenteritis decreased by 76% in the 5 years following vaccine introduction compared with pre-vaccine periods. Seasonal patterns of hospitalisation were prominent in pre-vaccine periods but were attenuated post-vaccine. The greatest decreases in hospitalisation between pre- and post-vaccine periods were observed in the 12-23 (80%) and 24-35 (88%) month age categories. Decreases in hospitalisation were reported for patients unlikely to have received vaccine cover at that time, indicating an indirect protective effect of rotavirus vaccine.This study reports significant reductions in rotavirus hospitalisation of children under 5 years of age at The Canberra Hospital following vaccine introduction, mid-2007. These findings support rotavirus vaccination as an effective measure to reduce hospitalisation in children under 5 years of age.


PubMed | National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, mens BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere.

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