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Ewence A.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology | Brescia S.,Regulations | Johnson I.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology | Rumsby P.C.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2015

Recent decades have seen an increasing interest in chemicals that interact with the endocrine system and have the potential to alter the normal function of this system in humans and wildlife. Chemicals that produce adverse effects caused by interaction with endocrine systems are termed Endocrine Disrupters (EDs). This interest has led regulatory authorities around the world (including the European Union) to consider whether potential endocrine disrupters should be identified and assessed for effects on human health and wildlife and what harmonised criteria could be used for such an assessment. This paper reviews the results of a study whereby toxicity data relating to human health effects of 98 pesticides were assessed for endocrine disruption potential using a number of criteria including the Specific Target Organ Toxicity for repeat exposure (STOT-RE) guidance values used in the European Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. Of the pesticides assessed, 27% required further information in order to make a more definitive assessment, 14% were considered to be endocrine disrupters, more or less likely to pose a risk, and 59% were considered not to be endocrine disrupters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

McLaughlin C.L.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology | Blake S.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology | Hall T.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology | Harman M.,National Center for Environmental Toxicology | And 3 more authors.
Water and Environment Journal | Year: 2011

There has been increasing interest in the widely used perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS). PFOS has been shown to be toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative in the environment and is a focus for restriction within the European Union. Limited monitoring data, especially in the United Kingdom, are available for PFOS in environmental waters, and even less for its detection in drinking water. Data available in the United Kingdom indicate that PFOS contamination of environmental waters has only occurred following specific incidents. Monitoring of 20 raw and treated drinking water sites in England, covering four seasonal periods, showed that PFOS is not a widespread background contaminant of raw and treated drinking water in England. Low levels of PFOS (0.012-0.208μg/L) were detected at four specific sites, which were at a higher risk for contamination. At three of these sites, where PFOS was detected in both raw and final drinking water, treatment processes [chlorination, ozonation and granular activated carbon (GAC)] did not appear to remove PFOS. The findings of this work are pertinent to risk assessments now required by the drinking water quality regulations. © 2009 WRc plc. Water and Environment Journal © 2009 CIWEM. Source

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