Wang X.,University of Oklahoma |
Parrish D.,National Center for Environmental Prediction Environmental Modeling Center |
Kleist D.,National Center for Environmental Prediction Environmental Modeling Center |
Whitaker J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2013
An ensemble Kalman filter-variational hybrid data assimilation system based on the gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar) system was developed. The performance of the system was investigated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System model. Experiments covered a 6-week Northern Hemisphere winter period. Both the control and ensemble forecasts were run at the same, reduced resolution.Operational conventional and satellite observations alongwith an 80-member ensemblewere used.Various configurations of the systemincluding oneor two-way couplings, with zero or nonzero weights on the static covariance, were intercompared and compared with the GSI 3DVar system. It was found that the hybrid system produced more skillful forecasts than the GSI 3DVar system. The inclusion of a static component in the background-error covariance and recentering the analysis ensemble around the variational analysis did not improve the forecast skill beyond the one-way coupled system with zero weights on the static covariance. The one-way coupled system with zero static covariances produced more skillful wind forecasts averaged over the globe than the EnKF at the 1-5-day lead times and more skillful temperature forecasts than the EnKF at the 5-day lead time. Sensitivity tests indicated that the difference may be due to the use of the tangent linear normal mode constraint in the variational system. For the first outer loop, the hybrid system showed a slightly slower (faster) convergence rate at early (later) iterations than the GSI 3DVar system. For the second outer loop, the hybrid system showed a faster convergence. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.