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Cedar City, GA, United States

Freeland A.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Banerjee S.N.,National Center for Environmental Health | Dannenberg A.L.,Healthy Environmental | Wendel A.M.,Healthy Environmental
American Journal of Public Health

Objectives. We assessed changes in transit-associated walking in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and documented their importance to public health. Methods. We examined transit walk times using the National Household Travel Survey, a telephone survey administered by the US Department of Transportation to examine travel behavior in the United States. Results. People are more likely to transit walk if they are from lower income households, are non-White, and live in large urban areas with access to rail systems. Transit walkers in large urban areas with a rail system were 72% more likely to transit walk 30 minutes or more per day than were those without a rail system. From 2001 to 2009, the estimated number of transit walkers rose from 7.5 million to 9.6 million (a 28% increase); those whose transit-associated walking time was 30 minutes or more increased from approximately 2.6 million to 3.4 million (a 31% increase). Conclusions. Transit walking contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations. Study results may contribute to transportation-related health impact assessment studies evaluating the impact of proposed transit systems on physical activity, potentially influencing transportation planning decisions. Source

Ahluwalia N.,National Center for Health Statistics | Herrick K.,National Center for Health Statistics | Moshfegh A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rybak M.,National Center for Environmental Health
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: Because of the increasing concern of the potential adverse effects of caffeine intake in children, recent estimates of caffeine consumption in a representative sample of children are needed.Objectives: We provide estimates of caffeine intake in children in absolute amounts (mg) and in relation to body weight (mg/kg) to examine the association of caffeine consumption with sociodemographic factors and describe trends in caffeine intake in children in the United States.Design: We analyzed caffeine intake in 3280 children aged 2-19 y who participated in a 24-h dietary recall as part of the NHANES, which is a nationally representative survey of the US population with a cross-sectional design, in 2009-2010. Trends over time between 2001 and 2010 were examined in 2-19-y-old children (n = 18,530). Analyses were conducted for all children and repeated for caffeine consumers.Results: In 2009-2010, 71% of US children consumed caffeine on a given day. Median caffeine intakes for 2-5-, 6-11-, and 12-19-y olds were 1.3, 4.5, and 13.6 mg, respectively, and 4.7, 9.1, and 40.6 mg, respectively, in caffeine consumers. Non-Hispanic black children had lower caffeine intake than that of non-Hispanic white counterparts. Caffeine intake correlated positively with age; this association was independent of body weight. On a given day, 10% of 12-19-y-olds exceeded the suggested maximum caffeine intake of 2.5 mg/kg by Health Canada. A significant linear trend of decline in caffeine intake (in mg or mg/kg) was noted overall for children aged 2-19 y during 2001-2010. Specifically, caffeine intake declined by 3.0 and 4.6 mg in 2-5- and 6-11-y-old caffeine consumers, respectively; no change was noted in 12-19-y-olds.Conclusion: A majority of US children including preschoolers consumed caffeine. Caffeine intake was highest in 12-19-y-olds and remained stable over the 10-y study period in this age group. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Buttke D.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Buttke D.E.,National Center for Environmental Health | Sircar K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Martin C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Environmental Health Perspectives

Background: The observed age of menarche has fallen, which may have important adverse social and health consequences. Increased exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationship between EDC exposure and the age of menarche in adolescent girls. Methods: We used data from female participants 12-16 years of age who had completed the reproductive health questionnaire and laboratory examination for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for years 2003-2008 (2005-2008 for analyses of phthalates and parabens). Exposures were assessed based on creatinine-corrected natural log urine concentrations of selected environmental chemicals and metabolites found in at least 75% of samples in our study sample. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis in SAS 9.2 survey procedures to estimate associations after accounting for censored data among participants who had not reached menarche. We evaluated body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared), family income-to-poverty ratio, race/ethnicity, mother's smoking status during pregnancy, and birth weight as potential confounders. Results: The weighted mean age of menarche was 12.0 years of age. Among 440 girls with both reproductive health and laboratory data, after accounting for BMI and race/ethnicity, we found that 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and summed environmental phenols (2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP) were inversely associated with age of menarche [hazard ratios of 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19 and 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19, respectively]. Other exposures (total parabens, bisphenol A, triclosan, benzophenone-3, total phthalates, and 2,4-DCP) were not significantly associated with age of menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between 2,5-DCP, a potential EDC, and earlier age of menarche in the general U.S. population. Source

Berko J.,National Center for Health Statistics | Ingram D.D.,National Center for Health Statistics | Saha S.,National Center for Environmental Health | Parker J.D.,National Center for Health Statistics
National Health Statistics Reports

Objectives—This report examines heat-related mortality, cold-related mortality, and other weather-related mortality during 2006–2010 among subgroups of U.S. residents. Methods—Weather-related death rates for demographic and area-based subgroups were computed using death certificate information. Adjusted odds ratios for weather-related deaths among subgroups were estimated using logistic regression. Results and Conclusions—During 2006–2010, about 2,000 U.S. residents died each year from weather-related causes of death. About 31% of these deaths were attributed to exposure to excessive natural heat, heat stroke, sun stroke, or all; 63% were attributed to exposure to excessive natural cold, hypothermia, or both; and the remaining 6% were attributed to floods, storms, or lightning. Weather-related death rates varied by age, race and ethnicity, sex, and characteristics of decedent’s county of residence (median income, region, and urbanization level). Adjustment for region and urbanization decreased the risk of heat-related mortality among Hispanic persons and increased the risk of cold-related mortality among non-Hispanic black persons, compared with non-Hispanic white persons. Adjustment also increased the risk of heat-related mortality and attenuated the risk of cold-related mortality for counties in the lower three income quartiles. The differentials in weather-related mortality observed among demographic subgroups during 2006–2010 in the United States were consistent with those observed in previous national studies. This study demonstrated that a better understanding of subpopulations at risk from weather-related mortality can be obtained by considering area-based variables (county median household income, region, and urbanization level) when examining weather-related mortality patterns. © 2014, National Center for Health Statistics. All rights reserved. Source

Knoeller G.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mazurek J.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Moorman J.E.,National Center for Environmental Health
Journal of Asthma

Objective. To examine the number of days with asthma symptoms among individuals with work-related asthma (WRA) and non-WRA. Methods. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios and compared mean number of days with asthma symptoms using 2006-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey data for ever-employed adults with current asthma from 38 states and District of Columbia. Results. Compared with persons with non-WRA, those with WRA had higher mean number of days with asthma symptoms. Regardless of WRA status, individuals with higher number of days with asthma symptoms were more likely to be unable to work or carry out their usual activities due to asthma. Associations between frequency of asthma symptoms and activity limitation due to asthma were weaker among currently employed adults and stronger among adults not currently employed than the observed associations for all ever-employed adults. Conclusions. These results suggest higher frequency of asthma symptoms among adults with WRA and underscore the need for optimal asthma management in individuals with WRA. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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