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Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Aziz Hairuddin A.,University of Southern Queensland | Aziz Hairuddin A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

Most of the electricity generation and energy for transport is still generated by the conversion of chemical to mechanical energy by burning the fuels in the combustion chamber. Regulation for pollution and the demand for more fuel economy had driven worldwide researcher to focus on combustion efficiency. In order to reduce experimental cost, accurate modelling and simulation is very critical step. Taylor series expansion was utilised to reduce the error term for the discretization. FORTRAN code was used to execute the discretized partial differential equation. Hydrogen combustion was simulated using Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model. Combustion of hydrogen with oxygen was successfully simulated and reported in this paper. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and selfdilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) was discussed. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Source


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper examines the effect of air-fuel ratio for Moderate or Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion using a bluff-body burner. Exhaust gas recirculation was used to dilute the oxidizer stream prior to the combustion chamber. A low-calorie biogas fuel which consists of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were used in the simulations using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model with the realizable k-e turbulence model. The chamber temperature distribution was found to be in small ranges and almost homogeneously distributed, verifying that MILD conditions were attained. The performance was evaluated based on the level of pollutants (Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon-mono oxide (CO)) produced and measured in the exhaust gas. Slightly lean conditions produced negligible pollutants with some excess oxygen measured in the exhaust gas. Under rich conditions, UHC and CO were produced, but when synthetic air containing oxygen with a mole fraction of 7% was used as the oxidizer instead of ordinary air, these levels were significantly reduced. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Source


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

Air fuel ratio (AFR) is an important parameter to indicate the combustion quality. Lower AFR will result in unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) that harm the environment. This paper discusses the simulation of AFR for the moderate or intense low oxygendilution combustion using bluff-body burner. A low calorie biogas fuel of 50% methane, 20% hydrogen and 30% carbon dioxide were used in this simulation. The AFR evaluated based on the UHC produced and measured in the exhaust gas composition. Stoichiometric AFR produced zero UHC and zero excess oxygen measured in the exhaust gas. UHC in the exhaust gas is a waste of fuel and is possible tocreate unwanted combustion at an unwanted location. The study found that at AFR 4:1, almost zero UHC was detected in the exhaust gas pipe and exhaust gas recirculation pipe. Source


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

Combustion ignition study is important due to the combustion process becoming more lean and efficient. This paper studied the recirculation zone and ignition location for the bluff-body non-premixed MILD burner with biogas used as fuel. The location of the ignition was critical to ensure that the spark energy supply during the ignition process can successfully ignite the mixture of air and fuel. The numerical calculations were done using the commercial code ANSYS-Fluent to simulate the furnace with a bluff-body burner to determine the recirculation zone. The turbulence model used was the realizable k-Ε model. The inner recirculation zone between the air and fuel nozzle is the best location for the ignition point, since the low velocity of air and fuel mixing will assist the ignition process. This is because the ignition energy will have time to ignite the mixture in the low speed turbulent swirl flow. The most suitable location with the highest possibility of ignition is the center of the recirculation zone. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Source

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