National Center for Engineering in Agriculture

Toowoomba, Australia

National Center for Engineering in Agriculture

Toowoomba, Australia
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Jensen T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture | Baillie C.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture | Bramley R.,CSIRO | Di Bella L.,Terrain NRM | And 2 more authors.
32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 2010, ASSCT 2010 | Year: 2010

WITHIN the Australian Sugar industry a number of attempts have been made to monitor yield variation across a block. These have ranged from the early yield monitoring systems based on discrete mass measurement, to the current focus of predicting yield via surrogate measurements based on chopper pressure, feed train roller displacement and elevator power. This paper describes an independent evaluation of commercially available mass flow sensors that was conducted to assess current performance of yield monitoring options while identifying opportunities for developing improved cane yield monitoring systems. Three yield monitoring systems which were commercially available in 2008 (AgGuide, TechAgro and MTData) were fitted to a BSES-owned CH2500 Cameco harvester. Trials were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 seasons in the Ingham district of North Queensland. Each yield monitoring system was assessed simultaneously to eliminate the influence of machine setup and site characteristics that would be encountered through independently assessing each unit. During the trial, the harvester was operated according to Harvesting Best Practice (HBP). In addition to yield monitoring, sugarcane yield was also measured using a weigh bin in order to determine the absolute accuracy and resolution of the respective yield monitoring systems. Weigh bin and mill weight data were used to assess the yield monitors at a range of scales including; 50 m of row, full rows, multiple rows (i.e. plot of 9 rows) and the entire field. These assessments were made with the harvester operating at both high and low pour rates. Only the TechAgro unit was found to provide results that were sufficiently accurate to be considered as a potentially viable sugarcane yield monitor. Performance of this unit was, however substantially reduced at high pour rates and this sensor was unable to account for changing pour rates. Recommendations for further refining the devices and for additional work are included.


Shalal N.,University of Southern Queensland | Shalal N.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture | Shalal N.,University of Technology, Iraq | Low T.,University of Southern Queensland | And 4 more authors.
Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation, ACRA | Year: 2013

Mapping is a significant issue in mobile robot applications. Mobile robots can build a map or a model of the environment using difierent sen- sors. An orchard is a suitable agricultural envi- ronment for mobile robot applications since it is a semi-structured environment, where trees are planted in nominally straight rows. This pa- per presents a new method to extract features from the orchard environment using a camera and laser range scanner to create a map of the orchard. The map of the orchard is based on the detection of tree trunks. In this study, im- age segmentation and data fusion methods are used for feature extraction, tree detection and orchard map construction. Integration of both machine vision and laser sensor provides more robust information for tree trunk detection and orchard mapping. The resulting map composes of the coordinates of individual trees in each row as well as the coordinates of other non-tree objects detected by the sensors.


Mohammed Amean Z.,University of Southern Queensland | Mohammed Amean Z.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture | Mohammed Amean Z.,University of Technology, Iraq | Low T.,University of Southern Queensland | And 4 more authors.
Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation, ACRA | Year: 2013

Remote monitoring of plant vegetation is an effective method to save time and to improve production efficiency. Modern agriculture techniques utilise mobile robot and machine vision for automated image acquisition and analysis. The Identification of plant parts such as leaves, stem, branches and flowers is important for assessing plant growth, irrigation strategy and plant health. In this paper, automatic segmentation and counting of plant branches based on vesselness measure and Hough Transform techniques is presented. Frangi 2D filter, based on Hessian matrix eigenvalues has been used to classify image pixels as either tube-like or blob-like. First the input image was converted to the gray scale image and used as input to the Frangi 2D filter. Size filter was used to eliminate non-branches and small objects from the image. Hough Transform was applied to detect and draw lines on the stem and branches on the image. The developed method can detect and count the branches automatically and was applied on different sides of view and different illumination conditions for the same plant. The results show a high percentage of branches segmentation for clear side views of the plant. However, branch segmentation was affected by low illumination conditions.


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Aziz Hairuddin A.,University of Southern Queensland | Aziz Hairuddin A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

Most of the electricity generation and energy for transport is still generated by the conversion of chemical to mechanical energy by burning the fuels in the combustion chamber. Regulation for pollution and the demand for more fuel economy had driven worldwide researcher to focus on combustion efficiency. In order to reduce experimental cost, accurate modelling and simulation is very critical step. Taylor series expansion was utilised to reduce the error term for the discretization. FORTRAN code was used to execute the discretized partial differential equation. Hydrogen combustion was simulated using Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model. Combustion of hydrogen with oxygen was successfully simulated and reported in this paper. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

Air fuel ratio (AFR) is an important parameter to indicate the combustion quality. Lower AFR will result in unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) that harm the environment. This paper discusses the simulation of AFR for the moderate or intense low oxygendilution combustion using bluff-body burner. A low calorie biogas fuel of 50% methane, 20% hydrogen and 30% carbon dioxide were used in this simulation. The AFR evaluated based on the UHC produced and measured in the exhaust gas composition. Stoichiometric AFR produced zero UHC and zero excess oxygen measured in the exhaust gas. UHC in the exhaust gas is a waste of fuel and is possible tocreate unwanted combustion at an unwanted location. The study found that at AFR 4:1, almost zero UHC was detected in the exhaust gas pipe and exhaust gas recirculation pipe.


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper examines the effect of air-fuel ratio for Moderate or Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion using a bluff-body burner. Exhaust gas recirculation was used to dilute the oxidizer stream prior to the combustion chamber. A low-calorie biogas fuel which consists of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were used in the simulations using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model with the realizable k-e turbulence model. The chamber temperature distribution was found to be in small ranges and almost homogeneously distributed, verifying that MILD conditions were attained. The performance was evaluated based on the level of pollutants (Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon-mono oxide (CO)) produced and measured in the exhaust gas. Slightly lean conditions produced negligible pollutants with some excess oxygen measured in the exhaust gas. Under rich conditions, UHC and CO were produced, but when synthetic air containing oxygen with a mole fraction of 7% was used as the oxidizer instead of ordinary air, these levels were significantly reduced. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang.


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and selfdilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) was discussed. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang.


Yusaf T.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture | Baker P.,University of Southern Queensland | Hamawand I.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture | Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

Cleaner air quality is becoming a global concern, thus to improve the fuel and combustion process is vital. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis software CFD-ACE is used to investigate the flow behavior of methane and air in a compressed natural gas (CNG)-air mixer to be implemented in a CNG-diesel dual-fuel stationary engine. The effect of the number of mixer holes on the mixture quality was evaluated. The results of the 3D CFD simulation showed that the 8-hole Venturi mixer gave superior performance compared to the 4-hole mixer. Further analysis was carried out on the 8-hole Venturi mixer to investigate the effect of engine speed on the mass flow rate of CNG and the equivalence air to fuel ratio (1/λ). The second half of the paper presents comparative performance results between a single cylinder research compression ignition (CI) engine fueled with a CNG-diesel system and a conventional CI engine fueled by conventional diesel. The engine was equipped with the simulated 8-hole Venturi mixer. The result showed a significant reduction in exhaust gas emission components (NOx, CO and CO2) from the CNG-diesel engine compared to the conventional diesel engine, i.e. the reduction rates were on average of 54%, 59% and 31% respectively. The average power output developed by the dual-fuel engine was 10% higher than the diesel over the power curve. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang.


Noor M.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Noor M.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland | Yusaf T.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Yusaf T.,National Center for Engineering in Agriculture
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

Combustion ignition study is important due to the combustion process becoming more lean and efficient. This paper studied the recirculation zone and ignition location for the bluff-body non-premixed MILD burner with biogas used as fuel. The location of the ignition was critical to ensure that the spark energy supply during the ignition process can successfully ignite the mixture of air and fuel. The numerical calculations were done using the commercial code ANSYS-Fluent to simulate the furnace with a bluff-body burner to determine the recirculation zone. The turbulence model used was the realizable k-Ε model. The inner recirculation zone between the air and fuel nozzle is the best location for the ignition point, since the low velocity of air and fuel mixing will assist the ignition process. This is because the ignition energy will have time to ignite the mixture in the low speed turbulent swirl flow. The most suitable location with the highest possibility of ignition is the center of the recirculation zone. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

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