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Singh P.,National Center for Disease Control Formerly | Mittal V.,National Center for Disease Control 22 | Rizvi M.M.A.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Chhabra M.,National Center for Disease Control 22 | And 6 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Independent outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) infection and sporadic cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been recorded in the metropolitan city of Delhi on several occasions in the past. However, during a recent 2010 arboviral outbreak in Delhi many cases turned negative for DENV. This prompted us to use duplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (D-RT-PCR) to establish the aetiology of dengue/chikungunya through sequencing of CprM and E1 genes of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Interestingly, for the first time, both DENV and CHIKV co-circulated simultaneously and in equally dominant proportion during the post-monsoon period of 2010. DENV-1 genotype III and the East Central South African genotype of CHIKV were associated with post-monsoon spread of these viruses. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Singh S.,National Center for Disease Control Formerly | Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Thakur S.,National Center for Disease Control Formerly | Banerjee B.D.,University of Delhi | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The present study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, hepatic and renal toxicity in occupational workers exposed to mixture of pesticides (n = 70) with same number of healthy subjects as controls. The mean comet tail DNA % (TD %) and tail moment (TM) were used to measure DNA damage, while AChE activity and other biochemical parameters such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea and creatinine) and hepatotoxicity (AST, ALT and ALP) were measured as biomarkers for toxicity due to exposure of pesticides. The occupational workers were continuously exposed to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion on a regular interval as per usage and activity. The comet assay using lymphocytes of exposed workers showed significantly higher TD percentage value (60.43% vs. 31.86%, p< 0.001) and TM value (14.48 μm vs. 6.42 μm, p< 0.001) in occupational workers as compared to controls. AChE activity in erythrocytes was found to be decreased (3.45. KAU/L vs. 9.55. KAU/L in controls, p< 0.001) and associated with the duration of exposure to pesticides used by the workers. Enzyme levels for hepatic and renal functions were also found significantly different in occupational workers than healthy controls (p< 0.001). These results suggest that the exposure to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion may induce DNA damage, decrease in AChE activity, hepatotoxicity as well as nephrotoxicity. Periodic biomonitoring of these biomarkers along with imparting education and training to occupational workers for safe application of pesticides is recommended for its potential hazards. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | National Center for Disease Control Formerly
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology and pharmacology | Year: 2011

The present study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, hepatic and renal toxicity in occupational workers exposed to mixture of pesticides (n=70) with same number of healthy subjects as controls. The mean comet tail DNA % (TD %) and tail moment (TM) were used to measure DNA damage, while AChE activity and other biochemical parameters such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea and creatinine) and hepatotoxicity (AST, ALT and ALP) were measured as biomarkers for toxicity due to exposure of pesticides. The occupational workers were continuously exposed to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion on a regular interval as per usage and activity. The comet assay using lymphocytes of exposed workers showed significantly higher TD percentage value (60.43% vs. 31.86%, p<0.001) and TM value (14.48 m vs. 6.42 m, p<0.001) in occupational workers as compared to controls. AChE activity in erythrocytes was found to be decreased (3.45 KAU/L vs. 9.55 KAU/L in controls, p<0.001) and associated with the duration of exposure to pesticides used by the workers. Enzyme levels for hepatic and renal functions were also found significantly different in occupational workers than healthy controls (p<0.001). These results suggest that the exposure to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion may induce DNA damage, decrease in AChE activity, hepatotoxicity as well as nephrotoxicity. Periodic biomonitoring of these biomarkers along with imparting education and training to occupational workers for safe application of pesticides is recommended for its potential hazards.

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