National Center for Disease control

Delhi, India

National Center for Disease control

Delhi, India
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Verma J.S.,Safdarjung Hospital | Gupta Y.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases ICMR | Nair D.,Safdarjung Hospital | Manzoor N.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate gidB alterations for possible impact on the cumulative mechanism underlying the acquisition of high-level streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: Fifty-two isolates with high streptomycin resistance and 23 isolates with low streptomycin resistance were sequenced for mutational analysis in the rpsL, rrs and gidB region. As the gidB protein has a complex substrate and no activity assay has yet been formulated, mutants of interest were subjected to in silico modelling and were structurally mapped together with active-site amino acid residues for assessment of the relevance to activity of the mutations found. Results: Eight novel sense mutations and four novel mis-sense mutations in gidB were identified. Findings showed that active-site morphology is not only greatly affected by mutants lying in close proximity to the active-site pocket, but also by other mutations altering secondary-structure motifs and having an overall effect on protein structure. Conclusions:We conclude that gidB mutations address many unanswered questions and explain the whole story behind phenotypic streptomycin-resistant strains exhibiting no mutation in rpsL or rrs. They also validate the hypothesis of sequential progression of resistance from low to high due to the existence of gidB alterations in the genetic background. © The Author 2014.

Bhuyan P.,National Center for Disease Control | Ahmed F.,Assam Medical College Dibrugarh
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study.

Cabanel N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Leclercq A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chenal-Francisque V.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Annajar B.,National Center for Disease Control | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

Shrivastava A.,National Center for Disease Control
Journal of Communicable Diseases | Year: 2014

Japanese encephalitis, an arboviral infection, is a serious public health problem in the Asian region. Globally, it affects 67,900 people per year, of which about a third are likely to die. The change in climate, ecological imbalance, and population growth together with related demands for change in agriculture and animal rearing practices have recently intensified its threat along with that of other viral encephalitides. However, many nations still struggle for disease burden data on acute encephalitides that can be used to plan prevention and control strategies. This review summarizes the current JE/ acute encephalitides surveillance system in Asia and West Pacific region, with a specific focus on India.

Dash S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma M.,M D University | Khare S.,National Center for Disease Control | Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2013

The 5′-thiolated DNA probe based on specific virulence gene, Omp85, was immobilized onto a screen-printed gold electrode followed by hybridization with 6-100 ng/6 μl (5.9 × 105-9.3 × 106c.f.u.) of Neisseria meningitidis single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) for 10 min at 25 °C from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a meningitis patient. The Omp85 genosensor can detect as little as 6 ng ssG-DNA in 6 μl CSF of a human brain meningitis patient in 30 min including a response time of 1 min by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance. The sensitivity of the genosensor electrode was 2.6(μA/cm2)/ng using DPV with regression coefficient (R2) 0.954. The genosensor was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Omp85 genosensor was stable for 12 months at 4 °C with 12 % loss in DPV current. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Narain J.P.,National Center for Disease Control
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building.

Dash S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma M.,Maharshi Dayanand University | Khare S.,National Center for Disease Control | Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Meningitis is a bacterial, viral or fungal infection of the protective membrane meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Viral and other forms of meningitis are mild and get cured within one or two week without any treatment. Whereas, bacterial meningitis can prove lethal if not being diagnosed or treated in time. Meningitis is a contagious infection and can spread from one person to another through coughing, sneezing or close contact. Usually the disease is diagnosed from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patients using culture, PCR, immunological and biochemical tests. All these methods suffer from one or more limitations. Our lab has developed a quick PCR based detection of Neisseria meningitidis (bacterial meningitis) directly from the patient CSF samples using specific primers of virulent rmpM gene. The overall analysis completes in 80 min for confirmation of the disease. Amplicon of 308 bp of rmpM gene does not show homology with other organisms and can be used as a genetic marker for human bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis. © 2012.

Singh R.,National Center for Disease Control | Kumar P.,National Center for Disease Control
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

The study present result of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) of different mesh sizes viz. PermaNet(R) 156 mesh/inch2, PermaNet(R) 196 mesh/inch2, PermaNet(R) 196 mesh/inch2 + 75 cm border of fine cloth in reducing Phlebotomus argentipes population along with community acceptance in three intervention villages. Entire experimental period of treatments maximum reduction 93.67% was observed in PermaNet(R) 196 mesh/inch2 + 75 cm border followed by PermaNet(R) 196 mesh/inch2 91.90 and 74.29% in PermaNet(R)156 mesh/inch2, when compared to control all the LLINs were showed significant reduction of P. argentipes population while compare to between them there was no significant difference. The significant reduction in gravid P. argentipes, was recorded as 71.87, 87.92 and 91.27%, in PermaNet(R) 156 mesh/inch2, PermaNet(R) 196 mesh/inch2 and PermaNet(R) 196 mesh/inch2 + 75cm, respectively. The preference was high for PermaNet(R) 156 mesh/inch2 without any side effect of LLINs. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Chauhan L.S.,National Center for Disease Control
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2011

Health is determined not only by medical care but also by determinants outside the medical sector. Public health approach is to deal with all these determinants of health which requires multi sectoral collaboration and inter-disciplinary coordination. Although there have been major improvements in public health since 1950s, India is passing through demographic and environmental transition which is adding to burden of diseases. There is triple burden of diseases, viz. communicable, non-communicable and emerging infectious diseases. This high burden of disease, disability and death can only be addressed through an effective public health system. However, the growth of public health in India has been very slow due to low public expenditure on health, very few public health institutes in India and inadequate national standards for public health education. Recent years have seen efforts towards strengthening public health in India in the form of launch of NRHM, upgradation of health care infrastructure as per IPHS, initiation of more public health courses in some medical colleges and public health institutions and strengthening of public health functional capacity of states and districts under IDSP.

Singh R.,National Center for Disease Control | Kumar P.,National Center for Disease Control
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

We present the results of susceptibility tests conducted on the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Adult P. argentipes insects were collected from 42 villages in 6 districts of the state of Bihar, India, as follows: Patna, Vaishali, Muzaffarpur, Samastipur, Sheohar, and Sitamarhi. These adult insects were exposed to 4% DDT-, 5% malathion-, and 0.05% deltamethrin-impregnated papers using a WHO test kit by following the standard procedures. In 16 (38.1%) of 42 villages surveyed, the P. argentipes populations developed resistance to DDT. Susceptibility tests using the organophosphate malathion in 22 villages revealed that in 1 (4.5%) village, the species developed resistance to this insecticide. P. argentipes was, however, highly susceptible to the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin. For long-term vector control of P. argentipes, it will be necessary to overcome the threat of insecticide resistance in this species. © 2015, National Institute of Health. All rights reserved.

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