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Seiliez I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dias K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cleveland B.M.,National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2014

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is recognized as the major contributor to total proteolysis in mammalian skeletal muscle, responsible for 50% or more of total protein degradation in skeletal muscle, whereas the autophagic-lysosome system (ALS) plays a more minor role. While the relative contribution of these systems to muscle loss is well documented in mammals, little is known in fish species. The current study uses myotubes derived from rainbow trout myogenic precursor cells as an in vitro model of white muscle tissue. Cells were incubated in complete or serum-deprived media or media supplemented with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and exposed to selective proteolytic inhibitors to determine the relative contribution of the ALS and UPS to total protein degradation in myotubes in different culture conditions. Results indicate that the ALS is responsible for 30–34% and 50% of total protein degradation in myotubes in complete and serum-deprived media, respectively. The UPS appears to contribute much less to total protein degradation at almost 4% in cells in complete media to nearly 17% in serum-deprived cells. IGF-1 decreases activity of both systems, as it inhibited the upregulation of both proteolytic systems induced by serum deprivation. The combined inhibition of both the ALS and UPS reduced degradation by a maximum of 55% in serum-deprived cells, suggesting an important contribution of other proteolytic systems to total protein degradation. Collectively, these data identify the ALS as a potential target for strategies aimed at improving muscle protein retention and fillet yield through reductions in protein degradation. © 2014 the American Physiological Society. Source


Salem M.,West Virginia University | Xiao C.,West Virginia University | Womack J.,West Virginia University | Rexroad III C.E.,National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture | Yao J.,West Virginia University
Marine Biotechnology | Year: 2010

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression of target mRNAs through cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs are most often identified through computational prediction from genome sequences. The rainbow trout genome sequence is not available yet, which does not allow miRNA prediction for this species which is of great economic interest for aquaculture and sport fisheries, and is a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. To identify miRNAs from rainbow trout, we constructed a miRNA library from a pool of nine somatic tissues. Analysis of the library identified 210 unique sequences representing 54 distinct miRNAs; 50 with conserved sequences matching previously identified miRNAs and four novel miRNAs. In addition, 13 miRNAs were computationally predicted from the rainbow trout transcriptome. Real-time PCR was used to measure miRNA expression patterns in adult somatic tissues and unfertilized eggs. The majority of the miRNAs showed characteristic tissue-specific expression patterns suggesting potential roles in maintaining tissue identity. Potential miRNA-target interactions were computationally predicted and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the miRNAs and their target sites in the rainbow trout transcripts. The rainbow trout miRNAs identified and characterized in this study provide a new tool for functional genome research in salmonids. Tissue-specific miRNAs may serve as molecular markers, predictive of specific functional and diagnostic implications. The data on genetic polymorphisms in miRNA-target interactions is particularly useful for rainbow trout breeding programs. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. Source


Cleveland B.M.,National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Soybeans and other legumes investigated as fishmeal replacements in aquafeeds contain phytoestrogens capable of binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Estradiol has catabolic effects in salmonid white muscle, partially through increases in protein turnover. The current study determines whether phytoestrogens promote similar effects. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary myocyte cultures, the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and R- and S-equol reduced rates of protein synthesis and genistein, the phytoestrogen of greatest abundance in soy, also increased rates of protein degradation. Increased expression of the ubiquitin ligase fbxo32 and autophagy-related genes was observed with high concentrations of genistein (100 μM), and R- and S-equol (100 μM) also up-regulated autophagy-related genes. In contrast, low genistein concentrations in vitro (0.01-0.10 μM) and in vivo (5 μg/g body mass) decreased fbxo32 expression, suggesting a potential metabolic benefit for low levels of genistein exposure. Phytoestrogens reduced cell proliferation, indicating that effects of phytoestrogens extend from metabolic to mitogenic processes. Co-incubation of genistein with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI 182,780, ameliorated effects of genistein on protein degradation, but not protein synthesis or cell proliferation, indicating that effects of genistein are mediated through ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Collectively, these data warrant additional studies to determine the extent to which dietary phytoestrogens, especially genistein, affect physiological processes that impact growth and nutrient retention. © Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Ma H.,West Virginia University | Hostuttler M.,National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture | Wei H.,Michigan Technological University | Rexroad III C.E.,National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture | Yao J.,West Virginia University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate post-transcriptional expression of target genes and play important roles in animal development. The objectives of this study were to characterize the egg miRNA transcriptome and identify novel egg-predominant miRNAs in rainbow trout. Small RNAs isolated from mature unfertilized rainbow trout eggs were subjected to deep sequencing using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. The massive sequencing produced 24,621,741 quality reads, among which, 266 known miRNAs were identified and 230 putatively novel miRNAs were predicted. The most abundantly known miRNAs are let-7 and miR-21, accounting for 24.06% and 18.71% of the known miRNAs, respectively. Other known miRNAs which are abundantly present in eggs include miR-24, miR-202, miR-148, miR-30, miR-10, miR-146, miR-25, and miR-143. Real time PCR analysis using cDNAs derived from 10 tissues validated 87 out of 90 selected putative miRNAs and identified three novel miRNAs predominantly expressed in rainbow trout eggs. Each of these novel egg-predominant miRNAs is predicted to target a significant number of genes, most of which are significantly down-regulated in naturally ovulated rainbow trout eggs based on analysis of publicly available microarray data sets. Quantitative real time PCR analysis also demonstrated low expression of a selected number of target genes in eggs relative to liver and muscle tissues. This study represents the first complete survey of miRNAs in fish eggs and provides a starting point for future studies aimed at understanding the roles of miRNAs in controlling egg quality and early embryogenesis in rainbow trout. © 2012 Ma et al. Source


Salem M.,West Virginia University | Kenney P.B.,West Virginia University | Rexroad III C.E.,National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture | Yao J.,West Virginia University
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2010

Muscle deterioration arises as a physiological response to elevated energetic demands of fish during sexual maturation and spawning. Previously, we used this model to characterize the transcriptomic mechanisms associated with fish muscle degradation and identified potential biological markers of muscle growth and quality. However, transcriptional measurements do not necessarily reflect changes in active mature proteins. Here we report the characterization of proteomic profile in degenerating muscle of rainbow trout in relation to the female reproductive cycle using a LC/MS-based label-free protein quantification method. A total of 146 significantly changed proteins in atrophying muscles (FDR < 5%) was identified. Proteins were clustered according to their gene ontology identifiers. Muscle atrophy was associated with decreased abundance in proteins of anaerobic respiration, protein biosynthesis, monooxygenases, follistatins, and myogenin, as well as growth hormone, interleukin-1 and estrogen receptors. In contrast, proteins of MAPK/ERK kinase, glutamine synthetase, transcription factors, Stat3, JunB, Id2, and NFkappaB inhibitor, were greater in atrophying muscle. These changes are discussed in light of the mammalian muscle atrophy paradigm and proposed fish-specific mechanisms of muscle degradation. These data will help identify genes associated with muscle degeneration and superior flesh quality in rainbow trout, facilitating identification of genetic markers for muscle growth and quality. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source

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