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Cysique L.A.,University of California at San Diego | Cysique L.A.,University of New South Wales | Letendre S.L.,University of California at San Diego | Ake C.,University of California at San Diego | And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To quantify and characterize the nature of cognitive change over 1 year in a cohort of HIV-positive former plasma donors in rural China. DESIGN: The present study is an observational cohort study. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-two HIV-positive and 101 demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals, all former plasma donors, who lived in a rural part of China, received comprehensive medical and neuropsychological examinations. At study entry, 56% of HIV-positive group was on combination antiretroviral treatment and 60.9% at follow-up. Multiple regression change score approach was used with the HIV-negative sample to develop norms for change that would be then applied to the HIV-positive participants. Follow-up test scores adjusted for the control group practice effect. RESULTS: Fifty-three HIV-positive individuals (27%) developed significant cognitive decline as compared with five (5%) HIV-negative individuals. Cognitive decline was predicted at baseline by AIDS status, lower nadir CD4, and worse processing speed; at follow-up, it was associated with lower current CD4 cell count and failure of viral suppression on combination antiretroviral treatment. Neuropsychological decline also was associated with decreased independence in activities of daily living. Using neuropsychological impairment scores that were corrected for 'practice' on repeated testing, we found that among the decliners, 41.5% (N = 22) had incident impairment, whereas 38% (N = 20) declined within the impaired range and another 20.7% (N = 11) declined within the normal range. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that despite ongoing combination antiretroviral treatment, cognitive decline in HIV-positive people is common over a 1-year follow-up. Regression-based norms for change on western neuropsychological tests can be used to detect disease-related cognitive decline in a developing country. Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Yu X.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Yu X.,Southern Medical University | Yuan L.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Huang Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The B′, CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE are the predominant HIV-1 subtypes in China. It is essential to determine their baseline susceptibility to HIV entry inhibitors before these drugs are used in China. Methodology/Principal Findings: The baseline susceptibility of 14 representative HIV-1 isolates (5 CRF07_BC, 4 CRF01_AE, and 5 B′), most of which were R5 viruses, obtained from drug-naïve patients to HIV entry inhibitors, including two fusion inhibitors (enfuvirtide and C34), two CCR5 antagonists (maraviroc and TAK779) and one CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100), were determined by virus inhibition assay. The sequences of their env genes were amplified and analyzed. These isolates possessed similar susceptibility to C34, but they exhibited different sensitivity to enfuvirtide, maraviroc or TAK779. CRF07_BC isolates, which carried polymorphisms of A578T and V583I in the N-terminal heptad repeat and E630Q, E662A, K665S, A667K and S668N in the C-terminal heptad repeat of gp41, were about 5-fold less sensitive than B′ and CRF01_AE isolates to enfuvirtide. Subtype B′ isolates with a unique polymorphism site of F317W in V3 loop, were about 4- to 5-fold more sensitive than CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE isolates to maraviroc and TAK779. AMD3100 at the concentration as high as 5 μM exhibited no significant inhibitory activity against any of the isolates tested. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there are significant differences in baseline susceptibility to HIV entry inhibitors among the predominant HIV-1 subtypes in China and the differences may partly result from the naturally occurring polymorphisms in these subtypes. This study provides useful information for rational design of optimal therapeutic regimens for HIV-1-infected patients in China. © 2011 Yu et al.

Xu Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Zhang Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Li D.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Liu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM) remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires.Results:Of 262 who participated in the survey, 223(85.1%) reported that they were willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Willingness to use the oral fluid test was associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-5.10), lack of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with male partners in the past one month (AOR: 2.38; 95% 95%CI: 1.15-4.95), having taken more than 4 HIV tests (AOR: 3.54; 95%CI:1.52-8.28), and having ever heard of the oral fluid HIV rapid test from gay friends or gay organizations (AOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.40-7.51). Among those who expressed willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test, the median amount of money they were willing to pay was 8 dollars. Among the 39 participants who were unwilling to use the oral fluid test, 79.5% (31/39) expressed concerns about the accuracy of the oral fluid HIV rapid test results and 17.9%(7/39) reported that they were not familiar with the oral fluid test and did not know how to use such a test.Conclusions:A high proportion of MSM in Beijing appear to be willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Appropriate cost and education measures could help improve acceptance of the oral fluid test. © 2013 Xu et al.

Tao J.,Vanderbilt University | Ruan Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Yin L.,Vanderbilt University | Vermund S.H.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2013

Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

He N.,Fudan University | Duan S.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Ding Y.,Fudan University | Rou K.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Although HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) via early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven to reduce transmissions among HIV-serodiscordant couples, its full implementation in developing countries remains a challenge. In this study, we determine whether China's current HIV treatment program prevents new HIV infections among discordant couples in rural China. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted from June 2009 to March 2011, in rural Yunnan. A total of 1,618 HIV-discordant couples were eligible, 1,101 were enrolled, and 813 were followed for an average of 1.4 person-years (PY). Routine ART was prescribed to HIV-positive spouses according to eligibility (CD4<350 cells/μl). Seroconversion was used to determine HIV incidence. Results: A total of 17 seroconversions were documented within 1,127 PY of follow-up, for an overall incidence of 1.5 per 100 PY. Epidemiological and genetic evidence confirmed that all 17 seroconverters were infected via marital secondary sexual transmission. Having an ART-experienced HIV-positive partner was associated with a lower rate of seroconvertion compared with having an ART-naïve HIV-positive partner (0.8 per 100 PY vs. 2.4 per 100 PY, HR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.12-0.97, p = 0.0436). While we found that ART successfully suppressed plasma viral load to <400 copies/ml in the majority of cases (85.0% vs. 19.5%, p<0.0001 at baseline), we did document five seroconversions among ART-experienced subgroup. Conclusions: ART is associated with a 66% reduction in HIV incidence among discordant couples in our sample, demonstrating the effectiveness of China's HIV treatment program at preventing new infections, and providing support for earlier ART initiation and TasP implementation in this region. © 2013 He et al.

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