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Shrivastava A.,National Center for Disease control
Journal of Communicable Diseases | Year: 2014

Japanese encephalitis, an arboviral infection, is a serious public health problem in the Asian region. Globally, it affects 67,900 people per year, of which about a third are likely to die. The change in climate, ecological imbalance, and population growth together with related demands for change in agriculture and animal rearing practices have recently intensified its threat along with that of other viral encephalitides. However, many nations still struggle for disease burden data on acute encephalitides that can be used to plan prevention and control strategies. This review summarizes the current JE/ acute encephalitides surveillance system in Asia and West Pacific region, with a specific focus on India.

Dash S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma M.,iversity | Khare S.,National Center for Disease control | Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2013

The 5′-thiolated DNA probe based on specific virulence gene, Omp85, was immobilized onto a screen-printed gold electrode followed by hybridization with 6-100 ng/6 μl (5.9 × 105-9.3 × 106c.f.u.) of Neisseria meningitidis single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) for 10 min at 25 °C from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a meningitis patient. The Omp85 genosensor can detect as little as 6 ng ssG-DNA in 6 μl CSF of a human brain meningitis patient in 30 min including a response time of 1 min by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance. The sensitivity of the genosensor electrode was 2.6(μA/cm2)/ng using DPV with regression coefficient (R2) 0.954. The genosensor was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Omp85 genosensor was stable for 12 months at 4 °C with 12 % loss in DPV current. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Narain J.P.,National Center for Disease control
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building.

Bhuyan P.,National Center for Disease control | Ahmed F.,Assam Medical College Dibrugarh
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study.

Dash S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma M.,Maharshi Dayanand University | Khare S.,National Center for Disease control | Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Meningitis is a bacterial, viral or fungal infection of the protective membrane meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Viral and other forms of meningitis are mild and get cured within one or two week without any treatment. Whereas, bacterial meningitis can prove lethal if not being diagnosed or treated in time. Meningitis is a contagious infection and can spread from one person to another through coughing, sneezing or close contact. Usually the disease is diagnosed from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patients using culture, PCR, immunological and biochemical tests. All these methods suffer from one or more limitations. Our lab has developed a quick PCR based detection of Neisseria meningitidis (bacterial meningitis) directly from the patient CSF samples using specific primers of virulent rmpM gene. The overall analysis completes in 80 min for confirmation of the disease. Amplicon of 308 bp of rmpM gene does not show homology with other organisms and can be used as a genetic marker for human bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis. © 2012.

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