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Fukumori T.,Tokushima University | Kuroda H.,Hiratani Child Developmental Clinic | Ito M.,National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research | Kashimura M.,Nippon Medical School
Journal of Medical Investigation | Year: 2017

Aims: This study investigated the efficacy of structured writing on reducing self-harm ideations and enhancing emotion regulation. Methods: Japanese university students (N=22) participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to the structured writing group (n=10; 70% female), or an assessment only control group (n=12; 67% female). For three consecutive days, participants in the intervention group performed structured writing that included psycho-education and self-reflection about emotions. The Self-Harm Ideation Scale, the Generalized Expectancy for Negative Mood Regulation Scale, and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II were used to assess outcomes. Results: Structured writing had a short-term effect on expectancies for self-regulation of negative moods and acceptance of negative emotions, but had a limited effect on self-harm ideations. Conclusion: This study presents preliminary evidence that increasing awareness, learning, and reflection about emotions resulting from using a structured writing program is particularly useful for regulating emotions. © 2017, University of Tokushima. All rights reserved.


Ito M.,National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research | Oe Y.,National Institute of Mental Health | Kato N.,National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research | Nakajima S.,Tokyo Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Background The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale is a brief generic measure for anxiety that encompasses frequency and intensity as well as behavioral and functional aspects of anxiety. This study was conducted to elucidate aspects of reliability, validity, and interpretability, such as equivalence of factor loadings across non-clinical and clinical populations, convergence and discriminance of related variables, and performance of detecting diagnostic and medical status of anxiety disorders.Methods Non-clinical and clinical Japanese populations were taken from a panelist pool registered with an internet survey company (total n=2830; 619 panic disorder, 576 for social anxiety disorder, 645 for obsessive-compulsive disorder, a 619 for major depressive disorder, and 371 for non-disorder panelists). Conventional measures of anxiety, depression, mental health and measures for discriminant validity were administered in addition to OASIS.Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated good fit to data for the one-factor model of OASIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed the equivalence of the factor loadings between those of non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The OASIS reliability was confirmed by internal consistency and test-retest coefficients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that OASIS and conventional anxiety measures have fair performance for detecting diagnostic and medical status as anxiety disorders.Limitations Participants were limited to a Japanese population of people who had registered themselves at an internet survey company. Conclusions Along with useful information to interpret OASIS, the results suggest the reliability and validity of OASIS in Japanese populations. These results also suggest cross-cultural validity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics of Tokyo, Gifu University, Tokyo Medical University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavior therapy | Year: 2016

Unified protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy for emotional disorders. It remains unknown whether UP is applicable for use in non-Western countries and for depressive disorders. We therefore examined its feasibility for a Japanese clinical population using this clinical trial design, which is multicentered, open-labeled, and single-armed (Clinical registry: UMIN000008322). The primary outcome was severity of anxiety symptoms, as assessed using Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, clinical global impression, functioning, quality of life, affectivity, emotion regulation, and adverse events. Of the 28 prospective participants, 17 were eligible and enrolled (depressive disorders=9, anxiety disorders=8). Severity of anxiety symptoms, which decreased significantly after the intervention, remained low for 3months (Hedges g=1.29, 95% CI=0.56-2.06). Similar tendencies were observed for secondary outcome measures. No severe adverse event occurred. Two participants dropped out of the intervention. High treatment adherence and interrater reliability were confirmed. Results suggest the feasibility of UP in the Japanese context sufficient to warrant a larger clinical trial.


PubMed | National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research, Center for the Development of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Training, Institute for Health Economics and Policy and Keio University
Type: | Journal: BMC psychiatry | Year: 2016

The unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders is a promising treatment approach that could be applicable to a broad range of mental disorders, including depressive, anxiety, trauma-related, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. However, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted to verify the efficacy of the unified protocol on the heterogeneous clinical population with depressive and anxiety disorders.The trial was designed as a single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized, 20-week, parallel-group superiority study in order to compare the efficacy of the combination of unified protocol and treatment-as-usual versus waiting-list with treatment-as-usual for patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. The primary outcome was depression at 21 weeks, assessed by the 17-item version of the GRID-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Estimated minimum sample size was 27 participants in each group. We will also examine the treatment mechanisms, treatment processes, and neuropsychological correlates.The results of this study will clarify the efficacy of the unified protocol for depressive and anxiety disorders, and the treatment mechanism, process, and neurological correlates for the effectiveness of the unified protocol. If its efficacy can be confirmed, the unified protocol may be of high clinical value for Japan, a country in which cognitive behavioral treatment has not yet been widely adopted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02003261 (registered on December 2, 2013).


PubMed | Boston University, University of Tsukuba, National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research, Tokyo Medical University and National Institute of Mental Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists). Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.


Nishi D.,National Institute of Mental Health | Nishi D.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Uehara R.,Jichi Medical University | Yoshikawa E.,Toshiba Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2013

Aim Although scales specific to resilience are available and widely used, qualities of resilience could be culturally sensitive. This study aimed to develop a concise scale of resilience for Japanese populations, and compare its validity to that of the Resilience Scale 14-item version (RS-14), one of the most widely used scales for measuring resilience. Methods The Tachikawa Resilience Scale (TRS) was developed on the basis of data obtained from unstructured interviews with Japanese motor vehicle accident survivors without psychiatric disorder. The reliability and validity of the TRS and RS-14 were then examined in cross-sectional studies performed with 523 company workers and 140 psychiatric outpatients. Results The TRS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with depressive symptoms in company workers and psychiatric outpatients and with anxiety in psychiatric outpatients, and were positively correlated with social support in company workers. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the TRS were high. Construct validity of the TRS was equivalent to that of the RS-14 in company workers, and higher than that of the RS-14 in psychiatric outpatients. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the TRS and RS-14 in Japanese company workers and patients with psychiatric disorders were acceptable. The validity of the TRS was equivalent to or better than that of the RS-14. Although the TRS cannot be regarded as an established scale due to a lack of theoretical rationale, the results of this study suggest that scales measuring resilience that cover cultural aspects might be more relevant in given populations. © 2013 The Authors.


Miyajima K.,Keio University | Fujisawa D.,Keio University | Fujisawa D.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Yoshimura K.,Keio University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Palliative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Little is known about the association between quality of end-of-life care of a patient and complicated grief among bereaved family members.Objective: This study aims to examine the impact of quality of end-of-life care on complicated grief among bereaved family members in a Japanese general population sample.Methods: A mail-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used. A total of 641 individuals aged 40 to 79 years in the general population who lost their loved one within the period between 6 months and 10 years were enrolled. Complicated grief was assessed using the Brief Grief Questionnaire, and the bereaved family members' perceptions on quality of end-of-life care were assessed using the Care Evaluation Scale and the Good Death Inventory. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that associated with possible complicated grief.Results: Possible complicated grief was observed in 24.5% of the participants. Three components of quality of end-of-life care, namely, dissatisfaction with the explanation to the family about the patient's expected outcome, unreasonable cost of care, and family's perception that the deceased person had not achieved a sense of completion about his or her life, were significantly associated with possible complicated grief. Spousal relationship, primary caregiver, and high psychological distress also had significant association. Conclusions: Perceptions on quality of end-of-life care were significantly associated with complicated grief. Providing sufficient information to patients' family about expected outcome and enhancing patients' sense of completion about their life may prevent bereaved family members from developing complicated grief. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research, Translational Medical Center, University of Toyama, Musashino University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Trials | Year: 2015

It is reported that nursing is one of the most vulnerable jobs for developing depression. While they may not be clinically diagnosed as depressed, nurses often suffer from depression and anxiety symptoms, which can lead to a low level of patient care. However, there is no rigorous evidence base for determining an effective prevention strategy for these symptoms in nurses. After reviewing previous literature, we chose a strategy of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and a mindfulness-based stress management program for this purpose. We aim to explore the effectiveness of these intervention options for junior nurses working in hospital wards in Japan.A factorial-design multi-center randomized trial is currently being conducted. A total of 120 nurses without a managerial position, who work for general hospitals and gave informed consent, have been randomly allocated to a stress management program or psychoeducation using a leaflet, and to omega-3 fatty acids or identical placebo pills. The stress management program has been developed according to mindfulness cognitive therapy and consists of four 30-minute individual sessions conducted using a detailed manual. These sessions are conducted by nurses with a managerial position. Participants allocated to the omega-3 fatty acid groups are provided with 1,200 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid and 600 mg/day of docosahexaenoic acid for 90 days. The primary outcome is the change in the total score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), determined by a blinded rater via the telephone at week 26. Secondary outcomes include the change in HADS score at 13 and 52 weeks; presence of a major depressive episode; severity of depression, anxiety, insomnia, burnout, and presenteeism; utility scores and adverse events at 13, 26 and 52 weeks.An effective preventive intervention may not only lead to the maintenance of a healthy mental state in nurses, but also to better quality of care for inpatients. This paper outlines the background and methods of a randomized trial that evaluates the possible additive value of omega-3 fatty acids and a mindfulness-based stress management program for reducing depression in nurses.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02151162 (registered on 27 May 2014).


PubMed | Gunma Hospital, National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research, University of California at Berkeley, The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and Keio University
Type: | Journal: Journal of affective disorders | Year: 2016

Parker et al. (2006) proposed a new approach to classify specific sub-types of non-melancholic depression caused by various stress factors and premorbid personality styles: the Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (T&P). The current study aim was to develop the Japanese version of the T&P and evaluate its reliability and validity.We studied 114 patients with non-melancholic depression. Reliability was assessed using the test-retest method. Convergent validity of the T&P was compared with the clinician ratings of each patient for the eight personality traits. We also assessed the impact of depressive state on the T&P.The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients among eight constructs of the T&P ranged from 0.77 to 0.89, indicating good-to-excellent reliability. Anxious Worrying (rho=0.29), Perfectionism (rho=0.17), Personal Reserve (rho=0.18), Irritability (rho=0.38), and Social Avoidance (rho=0.32) showed adequate levels of convergent validity; Rejection Sensitivity (rho=0.16), Self-criticism (rho=-0.02), and Self-focus (rho=0.07) showed relatively weak convergent validity. Perfectionism (rho=-0.06), Social Avoidance (rho=0.17), Anxious Worrying (rho=0.40), Personal Reserve (rho=0.30), Irritability (rho=0.28), Rejection Sensitivity (rho=0.35), Self-criticism (rho=0.49), and Self-focus (rho=0.24) showed minimal sensitivity to mood state effects.Only one site was used. While a Likert scale was used, the clinician-rated personality trait measure had not been validated.The J-T&P is a reliable and valid measure for assessing temperament and personality in Japanese patients with non-melancholic depression.


Ito M.,National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research | Hofmann S.G.,Boston University
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Affective styles are assumed to be one of the underlying processes of depression and anxiety maintenance. However, little is known about the effect of depression and anxiety and the cultural influence of the factor structure. Here, we examined the cross-cultural validity of the Affective Style Questionnaire and its incremental validity for the influence on depression and anxiety.Methods. Affective Style Questionnaire was translated into Japanese using standard back-translation procedure. Japanese university students (N = 1,041) served as participants. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire, Brief COPE, Self-Construal Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered.Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Affective Style Questionnaire comprised four factors: Concealing, Adjusting, Holding and Tolerating (CFI =.92, TLI =.90, RMSEA =.07). The measure's convergent and discriminant validity was substantiated by its association with various emotion regulation measures. Regression analyses showed that negative influence of Adjusting, Holding, Reappraisal (β = -.17, -.19, -.30) and positive influence of Suppression (β =.23) were observed on depression. For anxiety, Adjusting and Reappraisal was negatively influenced (β = -.29, and -.18).Conclusions: Reliability and validity of the Affective Style Questionnaire was partly confirmed. Further study is needed to clarify the culturally dependent aspects of affective styles. © 2014 Ito and Hofmann.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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