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Xu X.-B.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Xu X.-B.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu X.-B.,Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center | Shi Y.-J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2015

The toxic effects of the ubiquitous pollutant 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida were assessed by determining growth-inhibition and gene transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST), and transcriptional changes of the stress-response gene (heat-shock protein 70 [Hsp70]). Somatic growth and growth-inhibition rates in all BDE-47-treated groups were significantly different from those of the controls. The SOD gene transcripts were upregulated at all exposure doses and reached the maximum at the concentration of 400 mg/kg dry weight (dw) (3.84-fold, P < 0.01), which protected earthworms from oxidative stresses. However, downregulation of CAT and Hsp70 was present in all exposure doses and reached to the minimum at concentrations of 400 mg/kg dw (0.07-fold, P < 0.01 and 0.06-fold, P < 0.01, respectively). Upregulation of GST gene transcript level presented significant changes at concentrations of 10 (2.69-fold, P < 0.05) and 100 mg/kg dw (2.55-fold, P < 0.05). SOD maintained a dynamic balance to upregulate SOD expression to eliminate superoxide radicals in all dosage treatments, but downregulation of CAT decreased the ability to eliminate hydrogen peroxide. These changes could result in biochemical and physiological disturbances in earthworms. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

Rogelj J.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis | Rogelj J.,ETH Zurich | Den Elzen M.,PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency | Hohne N.,New Climate Institute | And 10 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2016

The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Grubb M.,University College London | Sha F.,National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation | Spencer T.,Institute du developpement durable et des relations internationales | Hughes N.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Climate Policy | Year: 2015

The projections of 89 scenarios from 12 different models for the CO2 emissions of China to 2030 are reviewed, along with wider examinations of lessons from the history of energy forecasting in OECD countries, and of the Chinese macroeconomic situation. Even by 2030, emissions in the scenarios span a factor of almost 2.5, indicating significant range and uncertainty. Statistical analysis of Kaya components suggests the carbon intensity of energy supply to be the strongest determining factor. However, most scenarios assume that industry1 continues to account for more than 50% of total final energy demand. This is in contrast both to historical examples, which have consistently shown economies shifting from energy-intensive industrial bases to service-based structures as income per capita rises, and to recent Chinese policy statements, which reflect a similar ambition. It is also highly salient that major failures in energy and emissions projections can frequently be accounted for in retrospect by failures to anticipate such major economic structural shifts. In conclusion, while the future trajectory of Chinese emissions remains profoundly uncertain, the potential for a significant Chinese macroeconomic transition and its implications for the scale and structure of energy demand will be a crucial factor, to which energy-climate models must pay far more attention. Policy relevance The dramatic growth of Chinese emissions since 2000 has become a major factor in global emission prospects and the international political agenda. Many models project rapid continued emissions growth, but an apparent halt in Chinese emissions in 2014 has amplified debate. Projections and policy need to recognise fundamental uncertainties in emission prospects, because in addition to energy/climate-specific policies, they depend on the progress in Chinese macroeconomic reforms, which are poorly represented in the models we survey. Global projections, the international process, and the design of China's own policies (most obviously, its national cap-and-trade system) need to cope with the possibility of continued growth to peaking in 2030 (the central commitment in China's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution), but must also be prepared to exploit and encourage the possibilities of low-carbon development and much earlier peaking. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Wang C.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang L.,China Certification and Inspection Group Testing Technology Co. | Liu X.,China Certification and Inspection Group Testing Technology Co. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

The carbon footprint (CFP) reflects the greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated throughout the life cycle of a human activity or product, and is therefore an important tool for assessing and managing GHG emissions. At the level of an individual product, a carbon-labeling scheme that provides more information for consumers could play an important role in encouraging a shift to low-carbon consumption. China is the largest textile and garment producer and consumer in the world. Studying the carbon footprint of textiles is therefore important domestically, for the management of domestic greenhouse gas emission and, internationally, for the communication of carbon information and relevant trade negotiations. For establishing the product carbon labeling system in China, this paper constructed an operable and comparable CFP assessment method and framework at product level and presents a complete case for pure cotton shirts made in China. Based on investigations of several Chinese textile companies and the observation of every production sub-process, the system boundary and methods of assessing textile product CFP were established. We then estimated Chinese CFP conversion factors for relevant energy sources and materials, and calculated the actual CFP for the life cycle of a pure cotton shirt. The average CFP of a pure cotton shirt produced in China, throughout its life cycle, is estimated as 8.771 kgCO2e. Of this, direct CFP is 0.347 kgCO2e, whereas indirect CFP is much higher, at 8.423 kgCO2e. The industrial production stage accounts for the highest proportion of the CFP, and overall production (including agricultural and industrial production) accounts for more than 90% of the total CFP. Approximately 96% of CFP throughout the product life cycle is indirect CFP, which is embedded in the use of energy and materials in each process. Within the industrial production stage, the transportation and weaving sub-processes account for nearly all the direct CFP (0.347 kgCO2e). Energy consumption, especially of electricity, is the main contributor to the CFP of textile products. These results could facilitate comparison between different products, and for the same products from different producers, In order to reduce the CFP throughout the entire textiles sector. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Duan H.-X.,Beijing Normal University | Lu Y.-L.,Beijing Normal University | Li Y.,National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation
Advances in Climate Change Research | Year: 2014

Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to investigate the Chinese public's willingness to pay (WTP) for a policy to reduce CO2 emissions. Face to face interviews were conducted to collect 1,653 valid questionnaires from Beijing, Shanghai, Shandong province, and Fujian province. A model was constructed to understand the factors that influence WTP. The results indicate that the Chinese public is willing to pay CN¥201.86 annually to support the policy of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Participants from Beijing show the highest WTP, followed by participants from Fujian and Shandong, while those from Shanghai report the lowest WTP. The findings reveal that participants with higher income, higher satisfaction with their current life, and awareness of climate issues are willing to pay more for CO2 emissions reductions. In addition, those who are young, male and members of the Communist Party also indicate a higher WTP. The results imply that translating the public's willingness to protect climate into actions should be taken into account in China's low carbon policy. There is a need to consider the difference in degree of willingness, among different social groups, to pay for emissions reductions if the market-based mechanisms such as carbon tax were designed to facilitate emissions reductions. Source

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