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Chen W.,Southwest University | Chen W.,National Center for Citrus Engineering | Chen W.,Laboratory of Citrus Quality and Safety Risk Assessment | Chen W.,Quality Supervision and Testing Center for Citrus and Seedling | And 12 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

The dissipation, residues, and risks of 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) in citrus under field condition were investigated based on a simple ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS method. The results indicated that the residue level of 2,4-d in citrus did not degrade gradually with sampling time under field condition. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 20–40 days, 2,4-d residues were 0.021–0.269 mg/kg in citrus flesh, 0.028–0.337 mg/kg in whole citrus, and 0.028–0.376 mg/kg in citrus peel, all bellow the China maximum residue limit in citrus (1 mg/kg). Risks of 2,4-d were assessed by calculation of risk quotient, and the results revealed no significant health risks after consumption of citrus. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Zhang Y.,Southwest University | Zhang Y.,Laboratory of Citrus Quality and Safety Risk Assessment | Zhang Y.,Quality Supervision and Testing Center for Citrus and Seedling | Zhang Y.,National Center for Citrus Engineering | And 6 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

A fast and simple technique composed of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the determination of multi-photoinitiators in fruit juice. Seven photoinitiators were separated in MEKC using a 25 mM borate buffer of pH 8.0, containing 24 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 10 mM β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and 12.5 % acetonitrile (v/v). A CD-modified MEKC made this method more suitable for the determination of isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) isomers including 2-IXT and 4-ITX than the recently prescribed methods. A DLLME procedure was used as an offline preconcentration strategy. The satisfactory recoveries obtained by DLLME spiked at two spiked levels ranged from 85.6 to 124.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 14 %. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.1 to 6.0 μg kg-1. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Su X.,Southwest University | Jian Q.,Chinese Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals | Chen W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

The effect of home processing on the residues of spirotetramat and its four metabolites (B-enol, B-glu, B-mono and B-keto) in citrus marmalade is comprehensively investigated in this paper by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A five-fold recommended dose of spirotetramat was applied to citrus fruit under field conditions and the processing included five steps: washing, peeling, pre-treatment for peel, mixing and boiling. The results showed that spirotetramat was the predominant component detected in unprocessed citrus, accounting for 64%. All the detected residues were primarily deposited on citrus peel, except for B-enol which was also present in the citrus pulp. Washing reduced spirotetramat, B-enol, B-glu and B-keto by 83%, 56%, 41% and 16%, respectively, and pre-treatment of the peel removed between 42% and 68% of the residues. Four compounds were all below the limit of detection after the mixing step. In the final product, only B-keto was detected at the concentration of 0.010 mg kg–1. After the whole process, the processing factors for spirotetramat, B-enol, B-glu and B-keto were < 0.041, < 0.125, < 0.294 and 0.313, respectively, which indicated that home processing can significantly reduce residues of spirotetramat and its metabolites in citrus marmalade. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

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