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Jiang Y.,National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic characteristics of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) mortality in China from 2004 to 2005. METHODS: The data came from 2004-2005, the third national mortality retrospective sampling survey which collected the death cause information and covered 31 province-level regions and 160 surveillance spots in the interior of China. Total 142 660 482 person years were investigated. Based on the data, the crude death rates of ages, genders and diseases were calculated. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) were also calculated. Standardized death rates were calculated from census data in 2000 and each five-year was counted as an age group. RESULTS: The total number of residents died of CVD between 2004 and 2005 was 194 932 (male 108 414, female 86 518, urban 63 397, rural 131 535) in survey districts. The crude death rates of CVD were 136.6 per 100 000 and the standardized death rate was 120.1 per 100 000. The crude death rates of CVD were 148.6 per 100 000 in male and 124.1 per 100 000 in female; the standardized death rates were 144.2 and 98.2, respectively. The crude death rates of CVD were 132.4 per 100 000 in urban area and 138.8 per 100 000 in rural area; the standardized death rates were 107.3 and 127.6 per 100 000 population, respectively. With age increasing, the crude death rates of CVD showed a fast growth trend. The crude death rates of group aged 35 - 39, 55 - 59, 85 and above were 10.6 (1352/12 712 639), 177.6 (10 599/5 967 274) and 4051.4 (25 430/627 688) per 100 000 respectively. Intracerebral hemorrhage accounting for 50.4% (98 324 cases) of CVD deaths, followed by cerebral infarction, accounting for 24.8% (48 305 cases). The total cases of stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke and not-specified stroke were 167 147, 105 766, 48 305 and 13 076, respectively, and the crude death rates were 117.2, 74.7, 33.9 and 11.3 per 100 000, respectively. The YPLL of Chinese people was 535.5 person years per 100 000. CONCLUSION: The mortality of CVD in male was higher than that in female; the mortality of CVD in urban area was higher than that in rural area. As the age increasing, the mortality of CVD appeared a rapid increment. Intracerebral hemorrhage was the main cause of CVD death. Source

Jiang W.,National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2010

To study the preventive strategies through analyzing the poisoning cases from the National Injury Surveillance System (NISS), from 2006 to 2008. Data of poisoning cases was descriptively analyzed from Chinese NISS, from 2006 to 2008. The proportion of poisoning cases to all injuries cases from NISS were 2.57%, 2.48% and 2.52% from 2006 to 2008, which ranked sixth in all the injuries causes. Most people being poisoned had junior middle school education and most of them were agriculture/animal husbandry/fishery/water producers or commercial/service personnel. Most of the poisoning incidents were happened at home, always occurred in leisure time - around 8 PM, every day. The common types of poisoning were alcohol, clinical drugs, pesticide and carbon monoxide. Unintentional injuries were the main causes. Self-harm/suicidal cases in the rural areas were more than in the urban areas, with women more than men. The main type of self-harm/suicide related poisoning cases were through drugs or pesticide. ≥ 65, 15 - 29 and 30 - 44 year-olds were most commonly seen. Alcoholism was the primary type of poisoning injuries which is the highest in young adults (15 - 29 years and 30 - 44 years). It's important to promote civilized drinking habits and limit access to alcohol for youth. Self-harm/suicide had close relationship with clinical drugs and pesticide. The key points to prevent pesticide and clinical drugs poisoning were safe storage of pesticides, universal security of pesticide, and the supervision on drug producing and marketing. Children and the elderly were the high risk people for carbon monoxide poisoning. Monitoring and intervention must be strengthened. Source

He G.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Fan M.,Ball State University | Zhou M.,National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2016

By exploiting exogenous variations in air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, we estimate the effect of air pollution on mortality in China. We find that a 10 percent decrease in PM10 concentrations reduces the monthly standardized all-cause mortality rate by 8 percent. Men and women are equally susceptible to air pollution risks. The age groups for which the air pollution effects are greatest are children under 10 years old and the elderly. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Wang L.,National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention
BMC nephrology | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease in patients with hypertension and diabetes as well as in the general population. Urinary albumin excretion over 24 h is considered a 'gold standard' to detect microalbuminuria. Few studies have used 24-h urinary albumin excretion to analyze the prevalence of and related factors for microalbuminuira in a general Chinese population.METHODS: This study included 1980 adults aged 18-69 years from the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project 2011 survey. Blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured, and a venous blood and timed 24-h urine samples were collected from each participant. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test associations between established cardiovascular risk factors and microalbuminuria.RESULTS: The median (25th-75th percentile) of 24-h urinary albumin excretion was 6.1 mg/d (4.5-8.7 mg/d) for all adults, 6.0 mg/d (4.4-8.5 mg/d) for men and 6.2 mg/d (4.6-8.9 mg/d) for women. The overall prevalence of microalbuminuria was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-5.0%), 3.7% (95% CI: 2.9-4.5%) for men and 4.6% (95% CI: 3.7-5.5%) for women. Microalbuminuria was present in 8.1% (95% CI: 6.9-9.3%) of individuals with hypertension, 11.4% (95% CI: 10.0-12.8%) of those with diabetes and 15.6% (95% CI: 14.0-17.2%) of those with both. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) and fasting blood glucose (OR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05-1.35) were the independent risk factors for microalbuminuria.CONCLUSIONS: Adults in the general population of Shandong Province have a moderate prevalence of microalbuminuria. Those with hypertension and diabetes are at high risk of having microalbuminuria, suggesting the need for screening and early intervention for microalbuminuria among these individuals. Source

Mendis S.,World Health Organization | Johnston S.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Fan W.,National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention | Oladapo O.,University of Ibadan | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Objective To evaluate a simple cardiovascular risk management package for assessing and managing cardiovascular risk using hypertension as an entry point in primary care facilities in low-resource settings. Methods Two geographically distant regions in two countries (China and Nigeria) were selected and 10 pairs of primary care facilities in each region were randomly selected and matched. Regions were then randomly assigned to a control group, which received usual care, or to an intervention group, which applied the cardiovascular risk management package. Each facility enrolled 60 consecutive patients with hypertension. Intervention sites educated patients about risk factors at baseline and initiated treatment with hydrochlorothiazide at 4 months in patients at medium risk of a cardiovascular event, according to a standardized treatment algorithm. Systolic blood pressure change from baseline to 12 months was the primary outcome measure. Findings The study included 2397 patients with baseline hypertension: 1191 in 20 intervention facilities and 1206 in 20 control facilities. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased more in intervention patients than in controls. However, at 12 months more than half of patients still had uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg). Behavioural risk factors had improved among intervention patients in Nigeria but not in China. Only about 2% of hypertensive patients required referral to the next level of care. Conclusion Even in low-resource settings, hypertensive patients can be effectively assessed and managed in primary care facilities. Source

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