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Huang X.-N.,National Center for Maternal and Children Health | Wang H.-S.,National Center for Maternal and Children Health | Chang J.-J.,Saint Louis University | Wang L.-H.,The National Center for Chronic and Non communicable Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2016

Background: Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants’ sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi’an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants’ sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver’s self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants’ sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Results: Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (P<0.01). Night waking followed a similar pattern. However, the differences in sleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Conclusions: Our data based on caregiver’s selfreport suggested that partial breastfeeding and bedsharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that will help prevent early weaning of breastfeeding. © 2015, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhou M.,The National Center for Chronic and Non communicable Disease Control and Prevention | He G.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Liu Y.,The National Center for Chronic and Non communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Yin P.,The National Center for Chronic and Non communicable Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

Background: China has experienced increasingly severe levels of air pollution in the past decades, yet studies on the health effects of air pollution in China at a national study level, remain limited. This study assess the sub-chronic effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory mortality in the 32 largest Chinese cities. Methods: We employ two-way fixed effects panel data analysis and monthly air pollution and mortality panel data. We estimate associations between monthly respiratory mortality and air pollution; pollution is defined as particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10. μm. We adjust for city characteristics, seasonality (monthly effects), and weather conditions (precipitation and temperature). We examine the associations between monthly injury mortality and air pollution to check for robustness. Results: The results show positive and statistically significant associations of air pollution with respiratory mortality. During the study period (2006-2010) a 10μg/m3 increase in monthly PM10 concentration is associated with a 1.05% (95% CI, 0.08-2.04%) increase in adult respiratory mortality rate. The air pollution effect is the most salient in northern cities (with central heating system) during the cold season (October-April); a 10μg/m3 increase in monthly PM10 concentrations is associated with a 1.62% (95% CI, 0.22-3.46%) increase in the elderly respiratory mortality rate. There is no statistically significant association between the young adult respiratory mortality and air pollution. Conclusions: The elderly respiratory mortality rate in China is positively and statistically significantly associated with air pollution. The effect is largest in northern cities during cold months when coal is burned for heating. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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